Sotos syndrome, or cerebral gigantism, is a syndrome of accelerated growth during early childhood, and a number of craniofacial and other physical abnormalities are commonly present. Behavioral and psychiatric manifestations of the disorder include attention deficits, aggressiveness, and social inhibition. The authors describe a case of psychosis that developed in a patient with Sotos syndrome.

Sotos JF, Dodge PR, Muirhead D, Crawford JD, Talbot NB: Cerebral gigantism in childhood: A syndrome of excessively rapid growth with acromegalic features and a nonprogressive neurologic disorder. New Engl J Med 1964;271:109–116.
Dodge PR, Holmes SJ, Sotos JF: Cerebral gigantism. Dev Med Child Neurol 1983;25:248–252.
Milunsky A, Cowie VA, Donoghue EC: Cerebral gigantism in childhood: A report of two cases and a review of the literature. Pediatrics 1967;40:395–402.
Cole TRP, Hughes HE: Sotos syndrome. J Med Genet 1990;27:571–576.
Cole TRP, Hughes HE: Sotos syndrome: A study of the diagnostic criteria and natural history. J Med Genet 1994;31:20–32.
Ott JE, Robinson A: Cerebral gigantism. Amer J Dis Child 1969;117:357–368.
Agwu JC, Shaw NJ, Kirk J, Chapman S, Ravine D, Cole TRP: Growth in Sotos syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1999;80:339–342.
Allanson JE, Cole TRP: Sotos syndrome: Evolution of facial phenotype. Subjective and objective assessment. Am J Med Genet 1996;65:13–20.
Rutter SC, Cole TRP: Psychological characteristics of Sotos syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:898–902.
Wit JM, Beemer FA, Barth PG, Oorthuys JWE, Dijkstra PF, Van den Brande JL, Leschot NJ: Cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome). Compiled data of 22 cases: Analysis of clinical features, growth and plasma somatomedin. Eur J Pediatr 1985;144:131–140.
Schaefer GB, Bodensteiner JB, Buehler BA, Lin A, Cole TRP: The neuroimaging finding in Sotos syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1997;68:462–465.
Melo DG, Pina-Neto JM, Acosta AX, Daniel J, deCastro V, Santos AC: Neuroimaging and echocardiographic findings in Sotos syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1999;90:432–433.
Hook EB, Reynolds JW: Cerebral gigantism: Endocrinological and clinical observations of six patients including a congenital giant, concordant monozygotic twins, and a child who achieved adult gigantic size. J Pediatr 1967;70:900–914.
Mace JW, Gotlin RW: Cerebral gigantism: Triad of findings helpful in diagnosis. Clin Pediatr 1970;9:662–667.
Ambler GR, Cowell CT, Quigley CA, Silink M: Growth hormone hypersecretion in Sotos’ syndrome? Acta Paediatr 1993;82:214–216.
Nevo S, Zeltzer M, Benderly A, Levy J: Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance in cerebral gigantism. J Med Genet 1974;11:158–165.
Zonana J, Sotos JF, Romshe CA, Fisher DA, Elders J, Rimoin DL: Dominant inheritance of cerebral gigantism. J Pediatr 1977;91:251–256.
Winship IM: Sotos syndrome – Autosomal dominant inheritance substantiated. Clin Genet 1985;28:243–246.
Bale AE, Drum MA, Parry DM, Mulvihill JJ: Familial Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism): Craniofacial and psychological characteristics. Am J Med Genet 1985;20:613–624.
Kjellman B: Cerebral gigantism. Acta Paediatr Scand 1965;54:603–609.
Abraham JM, Snodgrass JAI: Sotos syndrome of cerebral gigantism. Arch Dis Child 1969;44:203–210.
Morrow JD, Whitman BY, Accardo PJ: Autistic disorder in Sotos syndrome: A case report. Eur J Pediatr 1990;149:567–569.
Mauceri L, Sorge G, Baieli S, Rizzo R, Pavone L, Coleman M: Aggressive behavior in patients with Sotos syndrome. Pediatr Neurol 2000;22:64–67.
Patterson B, Bloom A, Reese A, Weisskopf: Psychological aspects of cerebral gigantism. J Pediatr Psychol 1978;3:6–8.
Livingood AB, Borengasser MA: Cerebral gigantism in infancy: Implications for psychological and social development. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 1981;12:46–53.
Hansen FJ, Friis B: Familial occurrence of cerebral gigantism, Sotos syndrome. Acta Paediatr Scand 1976;65:387–389.
Bloom AS, Reese A, Hersh JH, Podruch PE, Weisskopf B, Dinno N: Cognition in cerebral gigantism: Are the estimates of mental retardation too high? J Dev Behav Pediatr 1983;4:250–252.
Varley CK, Crnic K: Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive status of children with cerebral gigantism. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1984;5:132–134.
Finegan JK, Cole TRP, Kingwell E, Smith ML, Smith M, Sitarenios G: Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994;33:1307–1315.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.