Splitting is defined from a viewpoint of experiencing time as an ‘episodic loss or sudden shift of experiencing time induced by two opposing representational groups’. According to this definition splitting phenomena are examined in four cases arranged on a spectrum from multiple personality and hysteria to borderline personality disorder (BPD). The degree of splitting was most prominent in BPD. In Contrast to the hypermnesia associated with hysteria, that of BPD had the potential to develop into paranoia. Splitting phenomena were considered to operate as a defense mechanism against the development to paranoia. In all four cases it could be seen that the overflow of ‘parole’, corresponding to the hypermnesia, could not be fruitfully conceptualized due to the splitting phenomena. Assuring new integration was indispensable to the therapy of the four presented cases.

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