Introduction: Myriad treatment barriers prevent birthing parents with postpartum depression (PPD) from receiving timely treatment. We aimed to determine whether a peer-delivered online 1-day cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based workshop added to treatment as usual (TAU) improves PPD and its comorbidities and is more cost-effective than TAU alone. Methods: This parallel-group, randomized controlled trial took place in Ontario, Canada (June 7, 2021, to February 18, 2022). Participants were ≥18 years old, had an infant ≤12 months old, and an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥10. Participants were allocated to receive the workshop plus TAU (n = 202) or TAU and waitlisted to complete the workshop 12 weeks later (n = 203). The primary outcome was change in PPD (EPDS score) from enrollment to 12 weeks later. The secondary outcome was cost-effectiveness and tertiary outcomes included anxiety, social support, partner relationship quality, the mother-infant relationship, parenting stress, and infant temperament. Results: Participants had a mean age of 32.3 years (SD = 4.30) and 65% were White. The workshop led to a significant reduction in EPDS scores (15.95–11.37; d = 0.92, p < 0. 01) and was associated with higher odds of exhibiting a clinically significant decrease in EPDS scores (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.26–3.29). The workshop plus TAU was more cost-effective than TAU alone. It also led to improvements in postpartum anxiety, infant-focused anxiety, parenting stress, and infant temperament. Conclusions: Peer-delivered 1-day CBT-based workshops can improve PPD and are a potentially scalable low-intensity treatment that could help increase treatment access.

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