Background/Aims: Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation-I (CM-I). This study examined the change in scoliosis severity after posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for CM-I. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review at a single tertiary center for children undergoing PFD with untreated scoliosis, and identified 17 patients with complete follow-up data and imaging. Results: Overall, scoliosis improved in 7 (41.2%) patients, worsened in 9 (52.9%), and remained unchanged in 1 (5.9%) after PFD (mean follow-up of 7.8 ± 4.1 months). We found that 3 of the 8 (38%) children with early-onset scoliosis eventually needed scoliosis corrective surgery, which was needed in 7 of the 9 (78%) patients with adolescent-onset scoliosis. In addition, only 1 patient (17%) with a preoperative scoliosis curve <35 degrees and 9 patients (82%) with a curve ≥35 degrees required surgery for scoliosis correction despite PFD (p = 0.018). Conclusion: In certain patients, PFD for CM-I may lead to improvement or stabilization of scoliosis.

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