Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcome in a 13-year consecutive series of children operated for pituitary adenomas with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: All patients <18 years who were operated on at our center by transsphenoidal surgery for pediatric pituitary adenomas were included in the study. Clinical features, hormonal profile, radiology, surgical approach, results and complications were analyzed. Results: Eighteen patients (90%) had functional pituitary adenomas and 2 (10%) patients had nonfunctional pituitary adenoma. The most common type was prolactin-secreting adenoma (n = 12), followed by corticotropinoma (n = 4), growth hormone-secreting adenoma (n = 2), and nonfunctioning adenoma (n = 2). Prolactin-secreting adenomas in children occurred more commonly with suprasellar expansion than did other adenomas. Conclusion: Transsphenoidal surgery was effective for decompression of suprasellar extension and relieved the chiasmal compression immediately. Prolactin-secreting tumors required postoperative medical therapy for persistently elevated prolactin levels.

Schroeder JW, Vezina LG: Pediatric sellar and suprasellar lesions. Pediatr Radiol 2011;41:287-298.
Bunin GR, Surawicz TS, Witman PA, Preston-Martin S, Davis F, Bruner JM: The descriptive epidemiology of craniopharyngioma. J Neurosurg 1998;89:547-551.
Jagannathan J, Dumont AS, Jane JA Jr, Laws ER Jr: Pediatric sellar tumors: diagnostic procedures and management. Neurosurg Focus 2005;18:E6.
Jagannathan J, Dumont AS, Jane JA Jr: Diagnosis and management of pediatric sellar lesions. Front Horm Res 2006;34:83-104.
Mehrazin M, Yavari P: Morphological pattern and frequency of intracranial tumors in children. Childs Nerv Syst 2007;23:157-162.
Muller HL: Childhood craniopharyngioma: recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Horm Res 2008;69:193-202.
Ohmori K, Collins J, Fukushima T: Craniopharyngiomas in children. Pediatr Neurosurg 2007;43:265-278.
Richmond IL, Wilson CB: Pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence. J Neurosurg 1978;49:163-168.
Steele CA, MacFarlane IA, Blair J, Cuthbertson DJ, Didi M, Mallucci C, Javadpour M, Daousi C: Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes. Eur J Endocrinol 2010;163:515-522.
Colao A, Loche S: Prolactinomas in children and adolescents. Endocr Dev 2010;17:146-159.
Fideleff HL, Boquete HR, Suárez MG, Azaretzky M: Prolactinoma in children and adolescents. Horm Res 2009;72:197-205.
Knosp E, Steiner E, Kitz K, Matula C: Pituitary adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus space: a magnetic resonance imaging classification compared with surgical findings. Neurosurgery 1993;33:610-617.
Shah RK, Dhingra JK, Carter BL, Rebeiz EE: Paranasal sinus development: a radiographic study. Laryngoscope 2003;113:205-209.
de Divitiis E, Cappabianca P, Gangemi M, Cavallo LM: The role of the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in pediatric neurosurgery. Childs Nerv Syst 2000;16:692-696.
Locatelli D, Castelnuovo P, Santi L, Cerniglia M, Maghnie M, Infuso L: Endoscopic approaches to the cranial base: perspectives and realities. Childs Nerv Syst 2000;16:686-691.
Teo C: Application of endoscopy to the surgical management of craniopharyngiomas. Childs Nerv Syst 2005;21:696-700.
Couldwell WT, Weiss MH, Rabb C, Liu JK, Apfelbaum RI, Fukushima T: Variations on the standard transsphenoidal approach to the sellar region, with emphasis on the extended approaches and parasellar approaches: surgical experience in 105 cases. Neurosurgery 2004;55:539-547.
Frazier JL, Chaichana K, Jallo GI, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Combined endoscopic and microscopic management of pediatric pituitary region tumors through one nostril: technical note with case illustrations. Childs Nerv Syst 2008;24:1469-1478.
Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hoffman AR, Kleinberg DL, Montori VM, Schlechte JA, Wass JA; Endocrine Society: Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:273-288.
Harrington MH, Casella SJ: Pituitary tumors in childhood. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2012;19:63-67.
Locatelli D, Massimi L, Rigante M, Custodi V, Paludetti G, Castelnuovo P, Di Rocco C: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2010;74:1298-1302.
Jang YJ, Kim SC: Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus in children evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Rhinol 2000;14:181-185.
Szolar D, Preidler K, Ranner G, Braun H, Kugler C, Wolf G, Stammberger H, Ebner F: The sphenoid sinus during childhood: establishment of normal developmental standards by MRI. Surg Radiol Anat 1994;16:193-198.
Tan HK, Ong YK, Teo MS, Fook-Chong SM: The development of sphenoid sinus in Asian children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2003;67:1295-1302.
Eren E, Yapıcı Ş, Çakır ED, Ceylan LA, Sağlam H, Tarım Ö: Clinical course of hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents: a review of 21 cases. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2011;3:65-69.
Sinha S, Sarkari A, Mahapatra AK, Sharma BS: Pediatric giant pituitary adenomas: are they different from adults? A clinical analysis of a series of 12 patients. Childs Nerv Syst 2014;30:1405-1411.
Fisher BJ, Gaspar LE, Stitt LW, Noone BE: Pituitary adenoma in adolescents: a biologically more aggressive disease? Radiology 1994;192:869-872.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.