Background: There are currently no clear guidelines for the management and radiological monitoring of pediatric patients with epidural hematomas (EDH). We aim to compare clinical and radiographic characteristics of pediatric EDH patients managed with observation alone versus surgical evacuation and to describe results of repeat head imaging in both groups. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of pediatric patients diagnosed with traumatic EDH at a level II trauma center. Results: Forty-seven cases of EDH were analyzed. Sixty-two percent were managed by observation alone. Patients undergoing surgery were more likely to have an altered mental status (17 vs. 72%, p < 0.001), but there were no other significant clinical differences between the groups. The mean initial EDH thickness and volume were 8.0 mm and 8.6 ml in the observed group and 15.5 mm and 35 ml in the surgery group, respectively (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Eighty-six percent of the observed and all surgery patients underwent repeat CT imaging. The initial repeat CT scan results led to surgery in 1 patient who was initially treated with observation. Conclusions: Most pediatric patients with EDH can be managed with observation. Mental status and radiographic findings should guide the need for surgical intervention. Multiple repeat CT scans have minimal utility in changing management.

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