Background/Aims: The coexistence of scoliosis and split cord malformation (SCM) is often encountered. The characteristics of the osseous septum of SCM are still unknown to us. Here we try to delineate the configuration and nature of the osseous septa. The correlation between scoliosis and SCM is also discussed. Methods: 48 patients hospitalized for scoliosis were studied. SCM was subsequently identified in all of the patients. These patients underwent operations and were retrospectively evaluated. Results: The figuration, component, location and nature of osseous septa are described. 47 of the 48 SCMs (98%) were type I. Only 1 case was type II. 43 patients (90%) had 1 osseous septum. The other 5 patients (10%) had 2 osseous septa at different levels. 41 septa (78%) were mainly made of cortical bone, another 6 septa (11%) were mainly made of cancellous bone, while the other 6 (11%) were bone together with soft tissues. The prominent central blood vessels were found in 19 cases (36%). 10 osseous septa (19%) were derived from neural arches. 15 osseous septa (28%) were from both vertebral bodies and neural arches. Conclusion: We assumed that SCM might contribute to the progress of scoliosis. It is recommended that removal of the spur be carried out before corrective surgery on the spine.

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