Tuberculous brain abscess is a rare manifestation of central nervous system tuberculosis. We report the case of a tuberculous temporal lobe abscess in a 14-year-old female child that mimicked an otogenic pyogenic brain abscess. The patient had no prior history of tuberculosis. She had chronic otitis media and presented with signs of raised intracranial tension. Radiological imaging was suggestive of an acute pyogenic left temporal lobe abscess. A left temporal craniotomy was performed and the abscess was completely excised. Histological examination was consistent with a chronic abscess, and bacterial cultures were negative. A left radical mastoidectomy was also carried out. However, she presented with repeated abscess formation at the same site over the next 8 weeks, which was refractory to surgical therapy and broad-spectrum antibiotic administration. Furthermore, the purulent exudate showed strong positivity in the PCR test for tubercular bacilli. After administration of antituberculous treatment, she showed gradual clinical and radiological improvement. At follow-up after 2 years, she is asymptomatic. CT imaging at 2 years showed total resolution of abscess. Tuberculous abscess in the temporal lobe following otogenic infection has not been reported in the pediatric population. Although rare, the possibility of tuberculous etiology should be borne in mind as a differential diagnosis of acute abscess of otogenic origin, especially in endemic areas where the incidence of chronic otitis media as well as tuberculosis is high. The pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculous brain abscess in children is reviewed in light of the current literature on the subject.

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