Between 1980 and 1992, 10 children affected by tuberous sclerosis and intraventricular subependymal giant cell astrocytomas were surgically treated at the Institute of Neurosurgery, Section of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Rome. Nine patients presented with signs and/or symptoms of intracranial hypertension; in all of them the neuroradiological investigations demonstrated the presence of a space-occupying lesion in the region of the foramen of Monro with secondary ventricular dilation. In the remaining patient, a 5-month-old male infant, an intraventricular mass was discovered by means of an ultrasound examination performed after the first epileptic fit. Three patients underwent a ventriculoperitoneal CSF shunt as first surgical procedure; in 2 of them it was subsequently necessary to remove the intraventricular tumor due to the frequent occlusion of the CSF shunt device. Seven subjects underwent the direct surgical excision of the lesion. In all of them the procedure resulted in the control of the associated hydrocephalus. On the basis of such an experience, the authors conclude that the surgical removal of the intraventricular tumors in patients with tuberous sclerosis and hydrocephalus is the most appropriate treatment. In fact, in the series considered here, the removal of the tumor was not accompanied by significant morbidity, and was followed by improvement in clinical conditions. In particular, in cases in whom the occurrence of hydrocephalus was associated with a worsening in the seizure disorder, the tumor removal and the correction of intracranial hypertension was followed by a significant reduction in frequency or even by the disappearance of the seizures. However, in no case presenting with mental impairment was a significant improvement observed in mental performances as a consequence of the surgical treatment.