Persons who have been in contact with Lonomia achelous or Lonomia obliqua caterpillars present external and internal bleeding and opening of recently healed wounds. Hematological tests show normal platelet count, prolonged prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time, totally corrected by normal plasma. Decreased fibrinogen (Fg), factor (F) V, FXIII, plasminogen and α2-antiplasmin with increased FVIII: C, von Willebrand factor, Fg degradation products and D dimers. Tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor and protein C varied. In L. achelous biological fluids, compounds with anticoagulant or procoagulant properties have been identified. In L. obliqua bristle extracts, mainly procoagulant activities have been identified. Subcutaneous injections of L. achelous crude extracts and a semipurified fraction reduce Fg, plasminogen and FXIII in rabbits. Intravenous injections of a very purified fraction of L. achelous in rabbits produce lysis of preformed thrombi, a decrease of Fg, plasminogen, α2-antiplasmin, FXIII and inhibition of postthrombolytic thrombus growth. Subcutaneous injections of L. obliqua bristle extracts prolong prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and reduce FXIII. Intravenous injections of crude bristle extract and a purified fraction of L. obliqua induce disseminated intravascular coagulation.