Twenty-three patients with congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency, belonging to 9 kindreds were studied. Immunological variants were classified according to the relationship between FVII coagulant activity (FVIIC) and the level of FVII antigen (FVIIAg), considering 3 previously described groups: VII-, VII+ and VIIR. Activation variants were determined by the reactivity pattern with three different thromboplastins. One patient was classified as VII-, 16 as VII+, and 6 as VIIR. Three patients belonging to the same kindred showed a Padua 2 FVII deficiency, and 1 patient showed a Padua 1 variant. There was no correlation between antigenic or activation variants and severity of bleeding tendency. Classical autosomal recessive mode of inheritance was observed in VII- and VII+ families. Nevertheless, a possible autosomal dominant trait was observed in VII+ kindreds.