Introduction: Family history is an established risk factor for both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes; however, no study has presented population-based prevalence estimates of family histories of CVD and diabetes and examined their joint impact on prevalence of diabetes, CVD, cardiometabolic risk factors, and mortality risk. Methods: We analyzed data from a representative sample of the US adult population including 29,440 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2018) and assessed self-reported first-degree family history of diabetes and CVD (premature heart disease before age of 50 years) as well as meeting criteria and/or having risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Results: Participants with joint family history exhibit 6.5 greater odds for having both diseases and are diagnosed with diabetes 6.6 years earlier than participants without family history. Healthy participants without prevalent CVD or diabetes but with joint family history exhibit a greater prevalence of diabetes risk factors compared to no family history counterparts. Joint family history is associated with an increase in all-cause mortality, but with no interactive effect. Conclusion: Over 44% of the US adult population has a family history of CVD and/or diabetes that is comparable in risk to common cardiometabolic risk factors. This wide presence of high-risk family history and its simplicity of ascertainment suggests that clinical and public health efforts should collect and act on joint family history of CVD and diabetes to improve population efforts in the prevention and early detection of these common chronic diseases.

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