China is a multicultural country that has arisen from its 56 ethnicities, with a diverse population of over 1.3 billion people and an imbalanced economic development. The health care system in China is tending to be overall funded through urban and rural health insurance plans. Although China has invested in the basic research of genome science, public health genomics-related programs and services in China started late. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services and is free of charge in some economically advanced cities. Newborn screening programs are mandated throughout the country but vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and diseases screened for; most screening tests are paid by out-of-pocket expenses. Genetic tests are encouraged while there are only one accredited state laboratory and few territorial laboratories in China. Further national genomics policies are needed in China in a range of genetic issues and infrastructure of public health genomics. Careful measurement is essential to understanding the nature and scale of the task ahead.

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