Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute lung injury (ALI) through oxidative stress and inflammation. Naringenin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The possible protective effect of naringenin was investigated against ALI induced by LPS in rats. Methods: Rats received a single injection of LPS (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Naringenin was given for 4 consecutive days, at 2 doses (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.), starting 3 days before LPS administration. Results: LPS significantly increased wet/dry lung weight ratio, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues. Naringenin, particularly the higher dose, significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced changes in the measured parameters. Also, naringenin markedly reduced the histopathological lung tissue injury that resulted from LPS. Naringenin significantly decreased the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB, inducible NO synthase, tumor necrosis factor-a, caspase-3, and significantly increased heat shock protein 70 expression in the lungs. Conclusion: Naringenin significantly protected against LPS-induced ALI in rats through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinitrosative, and antiapoptotic effects.

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