Although it is known that both clonidine and loperamide cause delayed colonic transit in mice, these models of drug-induced experimental constipation have not yet been fully characterized. Therefore, the aims of this study were to validate the clonidine- and loperamide-induced delays of colonic transit in mice as models of atonic and spastic constipation, respectively, and to evaluate the effect of mustard oil, a TRPA1 agonist, in both models. Colonic transit was evaluated in mice by determining the time needed to evacuate a bead inserted into the distal colon. Both loperamide and clonidine dose-dependently prolonged the evacuation time. Clonidine (10 μg/kg) and loperamide (0.3 mg/kg) tripled the evacuation time compared to controls. These delays were antagonized by the administration of yohimbine and naloxone, respectively. Tegaserod, a gastrointestinal motor-stimulating drug, reversed the delay in both models, but the effects were diminished at high doses. Atropine, an antispastic drug, improved the loperamide-induced delay, but did not affect the clonidine-induced delay. Mustard oil accelerated the colonic transit dose-dependently in both models of drug-induced constipations. These results indicate that clonidine- and loperamide-induced delays in colonic transit are models of atonic and spastic constipation, respectively, and that mustard oil may be effective on both types of constipation.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.