Recent pharmacogenomic studies have revealed significant interethnic differences in glutathione S-transferase (GST) allelic frequencies among various ethnic groups. Therefore, we have investigated GSTM1 (gene deletion), GSTT1 (gene deletion) and GSTP1 (rs1695) polymorphism frequencies in 3 Brazilian ethnic groups (n = 203). GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism analyses were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and GSTP1 (rs1695) analysis was done by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. GSTM1– polymorphism frequency was 33.2%, while GSTT1 null (GSTT1–) was 30.2%. The valine GSTP1*B (rs1695) allele was present in 35.1% subjects, while the heterozygous form (isoleucine/valine) was the most prevalent genotype (46.6%). We found a statistically significant difference in genotype frequency among Amerindians versus Caucasians (p = 0.016) and among Amerindians versus African-Americans (p = 0.033). Considerable frequency variation was found in our study, even when compared with other studies showing phylogeographical heterogeneity to the genes studied in Brazilian populations.