Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) preferentially hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids containing arachidonic acid, resulting in the biosynthesis of eicosanoids such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. To examine the contribution of cPLA2α to skin inflammation, we evaluated the effect of (E)-N-[(2S,4R)-4-[N-(biphenyl-2-ylmethyl)-N-2-methylpropylamino]-1-[2-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)benzoyl]pyrrolidin- 2-yl]methyl-3-[4-(2,4-dioxothiazolidin-5-ylidenemethyl) phenyl]acrylamide (RSC-3388), a potent and selective cPLA2α inhibitor, on 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced ear inflammation and mite antigen-induced dermatitis in mice. Topical application of RSC-3388 showed a significant inhibitory activity against TNCB-induced ear swelling and eicosanoid production in mice. Comprehensive expression analysis using Gene-Chip technology and subsequent experiments concerning mRNA and protein expression demonstrated that RSC-3388 clearly reduced the levels of interleukin-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β in a TNCB-induced mouse model. In addition, RSC-3388 ointment significantly alleviated atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by repeated application of mite antigen. Furthermore, increased expression of cPLA2α, assessed by anti-phospho-cPLA2α antibody, was observed in the skin lesions of mite-antigen-induced dermatitis. These results indicate that cPLA2α is involved in the development of skin inflammation in mice, and RSC-3388 is expected to be useful for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

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