This study was designed to determine whether pyrazinoylguanidine (PZG) can attenuate diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced within 1 week after a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (45 mg/kg in 0.05 mol/l sodium citrate buffer). Diabetic rats were divided into five groups. Each group received by gavage for 24 weeks one of the following: vehicle (saline 10 ml/kg, b.i.d.), PZG (35 mg/kg, b.i.d.), captopril (15 mg/kg, b.i.d.), or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 20 mg/kg, b.i.d.). Insulin (NPH 7.5 U/day) was given subcutaneously. PZG treatment for 24 weeks reduced mortality and attenuated diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by reduced urinary excretion of total protein (79% of control), low-molecular-weight protein (12% of control), and albumin (60% of control). PZG also preserved renal structure and function. Compared to HCTZ or vehicle-treated rats, STZ-diabetic rats receiving either captopril or insulin exhibited decreased excretion of total protein, low-molecular-weight protein, and albumin, as well as amelioration of renal pathology. Collectively, these results indicate that PZG, as well as captopril and insulin, improved longevity and several indices of diabetic nephropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

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