Introduction: Uterus transplantation is a complex surgical procedure. Uterine ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage occurring in this process may cause loss of function in the uterus. Cell damage must be prevented for a healthy uterine function and successful transplantation. Cannabinoids, with their increasing clinical use, are substances with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects and have a role in immune system regulation. However, their efficacy in uterine IR damage is still unknown. This study provides information on the potential applications cannabinoids agonist JWH-133 in uterine IR damage and, hence, in the transplant process. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), performed uterine IR, and treated 2 groups with JWH-133. After anesthesia, ischemia was applied for 1 h to the uterus while reperfusion was applied for 3 h. After the experiment, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB) expression were examined in the tissue samples. Also, cell damage was evaluated by histopathological imaging and TUNEL staining. Results: In the uterine IR group, NF-κB expression and MDA levels were detected at high levels. Histopathological examinations and TUNEL staining revealed extensive cell damage. On the other hand, in groups treated with JWH-133, dose-dependent NF-κB expression and MDA levels decreased (p < 0.05). Depending on the dose, the rate of surviving cells increased in TUNEL staining results. Conclusion: The results showed that JWH-133 was effective in reducing uterine IR damage. Cannabinoids may be a new alternative that may be used in the transplantation process in the future.

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