Objective: To define the cross-reactivity potential and the consequent autoimmunity intrinsic to viral versus human peptide sharing. Methods: Using human papillomavirus (HPV) infection/active immunization as a research model, the experimentally validated HPV L1 epitopes catalogued at the Immune Epitope DataBase were analyzed for peptide sharing with the human proteome. Results: The final data show that the totality of the immunoreactive HPV L1 epi-topes is mostly composed by peptides present in human proteins. Conclusions: Immunologically, the high extent of peptide sharing between the HPV L1 epitopes and human proteins invites to revise the concept of the negative selection of self-reactive lymphocytes. Pathologically, the data highlight a cross-reactive potential for a spectrum of autoimmune diseases that includes ovarian failure, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), breast cancer and sudden death, among others. Therapeutically, analyzing already validated immunoreactive epitopes filters out the peptide sharing possibly exempt of self-reactivity, defines the effective potential for pathologic autoimmunity, and allows singling out peptide epitopes for safe immunotherapeutic protocols.

Autoimmunity derives from an immune response directed against proteins/structures normally presented within the body of the host [1]. In general, infections precede the onset of autoimmune diseases [2-9] and, since the 80s, the sharing of sequences/structures between microbial agents and humans has been proposed as the cross-reactive molecular basis for infection-induced autoimmune diseases [10, 11].

During the last two decades, the advent of proteomics allowed comparative biochemical analyses of microbial and human proteomes and highlighted data never reported before, namely the high quantitative dimensions of the peptide commonality among all organisms. Indeed, starting from 2000 [12], numerous studies [13-18] have documented that microbial proteomes have an incredibly high number of peptide overlaps with the human proteome. The massive and widespread distribution of microbial sequences throughout the human proteome shakes up the immunological concept of a “human self” distinct and separated from “the others,” be they viruses, bacteria, protozoa, plants, and others. Just examining only 30 viral proteomes, biochemical sequence analyses and mathematical calculations highlight a viral-versus-human peptide overlap amounting to 2,907,096 total pentapeptides [13]. Such a peptide commonality nullifies the boundary between the human self and the nonself, that is to say the core issue in immunology and immunotherapy [19, 20], since pentapeptides are minimal sufficient immunological determinants [21-25].

Hence, the awesome dimensions of the microbial versus human peptide overlap raise basic immunotherapeutic concerns. Indeed, how to distinguish, within the massive common sequence platform, the peptide sequences that can be involved in self-reactivity and lead to autoimmune diseases? How to single out peptide sequences that might be useful for immunotherapy against pathogens? As a matter of fact, the unexpectedly high extent of the peptide sharing hampers a peptide-by-peptide immunological characterization and the utilization of the peptide overlap data, thus making the goals of immunotherapy seem unattainable.

To investigate these issues, the present study (i) uses human papillomavirus (HPV) infection/active immunization as a research model since numerous epitopes from HPV variants [26] have been experimentally validated and are available at the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) [27]; (ii) searches the immunoreactive HPV epitopes for peptide matches with the human proteome; (iii) describes examples of human proteins that – when hit by cross-reactions generated by HPV infection/active immunization – may associate with diseases and autoimmune manifestations; and (iv) traces the confinement borders between “safe” and “unsafe” epitopes, namely, identifies HPV sequences that, by being absent in the human proteome, can be safely used for anti-HPV immunotherapy.

The immunopositive HPV L1 linear epitopes (186 sequences) were retrieved from IEDB (www.iedb.org) [27] and derived from 15 HPV types (1a, 2, 3, 4, 6b, 6, 11, 16, 18, 29, 31, 33, 44, 52, and 58). Each HPV L1 epitope was dissected into pentapeptides, that is minimal immune determinants [21-25], offset each other by one amino acid (aa). The resulting 980 pentapeptides were analyzed for occurrences in the human proteome using Pir Peptide Match program (https://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/peptidematch/index.jsp) [28]. Human proteins that shared peptide sequences with the HPV L1 epitopes were recorded and analyzed for functions and associated pathologies using UniProt database (www.uniprot.org) [29] plus PubMed and OMIM resources.

Description of the Peptide Sharing between HPV L1 Epitopes and Human Proteins

Only 95 out of the 980 pentapeptides derived from the 186 HPV L1 epitopes are uniquely present in the viral proteins and absent in the human proteome (Table 1). Aiming at visualizing the complexity and extent of the viral versus human peptide overlap, Table 1 reports shared pentapeptides with initial aa in capital format and HPV-specific pentapeptides with initial aa in small format. For example, the epitope YLKGNNGRET (IEDB ID: 74736) consists of 6 overlapped minimal immune determinants: YLKGN, LKGNN, KGNNG, GNNGR, NNGRE, and NGRET. All but one of the 6 immune determinants are shared with human proteins and are visualized with the initial aa capital marked. The pentapeptide unique to HPV (NNGRE) is given with the initial aa N in lowercase letters.

Table 1.

Pentapeptide sharing between HPV L1 immunoreactive epitopes and human proteins

Pentapeptide sharing between HPV L1 immunoreactive epitopes and human proteins
Pentapeptide sharing between HPV L1 immunoreactive epitopes and human proteins

The 95 pentapeptides that are uniquely present in the HPV epitopes are listed in Table 2. These 95 HPV L1 pentapeptides are distributed among 71 HPV types (data not shown) and might have immunotherapeutic utilization for active immunizations exempt of cross-reactivity.

Table 2.

Description of 95 HPV L1 epitope-derived pentapeptides that are absent in the human proteomea

Description of 95 HPV L1 epitope-derived pentapeptides that are absent in the human proteomea
Description of 95 HPV L1 epitope-derived pentapeptides that are absent in the human proteomea

At a glance, Table 1 clearly documents the impressively high extent of the peptide sharing occurring between immunoreactive HPV L1 epitopes and the human proteome. In practice, all of the analyzed HPV L1 epitopes are characterized by a viral-human compositional peptide mosaicism that confirms the biochemical evolutionary connection between viruses and eukaryotes [30]. Moreover, it has also to be underscored that Table 1 describes only linear HPV L1 epitopic sequences. Actually, discontinuous nonlinear epitopes add to the cross-reactivity burden and the autoimmune potential illustrated above. For example, a search through IEDB shows that the HPV L1 epitope IEDB ID 114247 corresponds to the discontinuous hexapeptide A158S159A160A163N164A165, and the HPV L1 epitope IEDB ID 114248 corresponds to the discontinuous peptide L286, A290, A292, N296, D299, T309, N311, S314, N316, S375, T376, E378, Y381, N383, T384. And finally, although we do not report on protein isoforms because of space, it has to be mentioned that isoforms, expressed in different tissues and at different times of the cellular growth, introduce a further factor of complexity in the immunoreactivity scenario and might help explain the different responses of individuals to infections/active immunizations.

The Pathological Implications of the Peptide Sharing between HPV L1 Epitopes and Human Proteins

The shared 885 HPV epitopic pentapeptides are disseminated throughout 4,938 human proteins for a total of 6,964 occurrences, including multiple/repeated occurrences. The unexpected enormous size of the peptide overlap between the HPV epitopes and human proteins can be appreciated by considering that the mathematical probability that one pentapeptide occurs in two proteins is equal to 20–5, that is, 0.0000003125. This extremely relevant peptide sharing indicates a cross-reactivity potential capable of triggering an extremely wide and complex spectrum of autoimmune diseases that cannot be analyzed in detail because of obvious reasons of space. Then, confining the discussion to a few human proteins and reporting the shared peptides in parentheses, peptide matching analyses show the pathological scenarios that follow.

Ovarian dysgenesis, anovulation and male infertility, altered gene expression during oogenesis, premature ovarian failure, diminished ovarian reserve, accelerated primordial follicle loss, oocyte DNA damage, as well as susceptibility to breast/ovarian cancer could occur fol-lowing immune attacks against DNA helicase MCM9 (LLLVG) [31]; histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2D (GLQPP, VSSEA, HKAQG) and histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2B (TPPAP, CQKHT, LQPPP) [32, 33]; protein KASH5 (LQPPP) [34]; histone H1oo (AGSSR, KGSGS, SSTST) [35]; protein diaphanous homolog 2 (FRIHL, GVPPP, NKFGL) [36]; breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein (EEFDL, LKGNN, STILE, TVVDT) [37]; Bcl-2-related ovarian killer protein (VVSTD) [38]; bone morphogenetic protein 15 (KNPTN) [39]; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E transporter (HPLLN, PTTSL) [40]; and activin receptor type-2B (YLKGN) [41].

Disorders in spermatogenesis, sperm – egg fusion, or spermatid maturation and male infertility can associate with altered spermatogenesis-associated protein 16 (AGSSR) [42]; spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein (FTLGK) [43]; spermatid-specific manchette--related protein 1 (ISGHP, GHPYL) [44]; and sperm flagellar protein 2 (KKVKK, RKFLL, SESQL) [45].

Neuropsychiatric diseases including epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and brain cancer can derive from alterations of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 (KVVLP) [46]; deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein -(SEVPL, EVPLD) [47]; neuroblastoma breakpoint family member 1 (NLKEK, SSAPR) [48]; neurofibromin -(AEVMA, PLLNK, STKRK) [49]; neuronal migration protein doublecortin (LASSN) [50]; neuron navigator 3 (FKEYV, KEKED, LFNKP, SLVSS) [51]; and teneurin-2 (KVVST, LRKEQ, LWLPS, RLLAV) [52]. Actually, the potential immune impact on cell and organ functions might be even more complex because of the frequently multiple cellular functions associated with proteins. For instance, teneurin-2 is implicated in neural development and establishment of proper circuit-wiring within the nervous system, promotes the formation of enlarged growth cone in neuronal cells, induces homophilic cell-cell adhesion, may function as a cellular signal transducer, and increases survival in ovarian cancer patients [53-55].

Lupus manifestations can derive from immune attacks against the lupus autoantigens listed in Table 3 [56], thus justifying recommendations and barriers to vaccination in SLE patients [57, 58].

Table 3.

Peptide sharing between HPV L1 epitopes and lupus autoantigensa

Peptide sharing between HPV L1 epitopes and lupus autoantigensa
Peptide sharing between HPV L1 epitopes and lupus autoantigensa

Altered control of the vascular dynamics, pain, fevers associated with the menstrual cycle, depression, hypotension, and dysregulation of blood pressure may follow immune attacks against D(1B) dopamine receptor (APPLG) [59], D(4) dopamine receptor (TPPAP) [60], 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (LPSEA) [61], 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 (EVGRG) [62], beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (RSGTV) [63], neurabin-2 or spinophilin (TAPIQ) [64], and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (LLLVG) [65].

Then, focusing on cardiac autoimmunity and sudden unexplained death, it is of remarkable importance the HPV L1 pentapeptide RVFRI shared with 11 potassium voltage-gated channel proteins (UniProt entries: KCA10, KCNA1, KCNA2, KCNA3, KCNA4, KCNA5, KCNA6, KCNA7, KCND1, KCND2, and KCND3). Voltage-gated potassium channels are proteins characterized by 6 transmembrane segments (S1–S6), 2 of which (S5–S6) form a central pore surrounded by the 4 voltage sensor domains S1–S4. Crucially, the HPV L1 pentapeptide RVFRI is allocated in the sensor domain S4 (Fig. 1), which, upon depolarization, moves outward carrying charged residues across the membrane field, thereby leading to the opening of the pore [66]. Alterations of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins have been related to Brugada syndrome and sudden unexplained death [67].

Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of a voltage-gated potassium channel protein: the HPV L1 pentapeptide RVFRI is allocated in the sensor domain S4, which is involved in closing/opening the pore and the K+ flux [66].

Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of a voltage-gated potassium channel protein: the HPV L1 pentapeptide RVFRI is allocated in the sensor domain S4, which is involved in closing/opening the pore and the K+ flux [66].

Close modal

The set of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins containing the pentapeptide sensor motif RVFRI is additionally flanked by a further group of potassium-channel proteins (Table 4) that might be targeted by cross-reactive anti-HPV immune responses. On the whole, immune attacks against these cardiac targets might lead to channelopathies that play a crucial role in sudden death and in the genesis of atrial fibrillation and cardiac arrhythmias [68], early infantile epileptic encephalopathy [69], and febrile seizure syndromes [70].

Table 4.

Pentapeptide sharing between HPV L1 epitopes and potassium-channel proteinsa

Pentapeptide sharing between HPV L1 epitopes and potassium-channel proteinsa
Pentapeptide sharing between HPV L1 epitopes and potassium-channel proteinsa

Risk of sudden unexplained death is also present when examining the high extent of peptide sharing (i.e., 30 pentapeptides, including multiple occurrences) with Titin (Table 5), a cardiac protein that, when altered, may associate with sudden death [71].

Table 5.

Distribution of HPV L1 pentapeptides along Titin sequencea

Distribution of HPV L1 pentapeptides along Titin sequencea
Distribution of HPV L1 pentapeptides along Titin sequencea

Other crucial cardiac proteins involved in the peptide sharing with HPV L1 proteins are (with shared pentapeptides in parentheses) cardiomyopathy-associated protein 5 (VKLPD) [72]; trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase-like (QMSLW) that associates with arrhythmia [73], and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (PPPGG, PPPPT, and PSGSL) that relates to coronary artery disease [74].

Immune Attacks against One Single HPV Epitope Can Lead to Multiple Diseases

Moreover and of very special relevance in the present context, an immune attack against one single HPV epi-tope can cross-react with numerous human proteins, each of which is implicated in specific pathologic manifestations (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2.

Immune responses against HPV L1 epitope YDDVENSGGYGGNPGQDNRV can hit multiple human proteins and lead to multiple diseases.

Fig. 2.

Immune responses against HPV L1 epitope YDDVENSGGYGGNPGQDNRV can hit multiple human proteins and lead to multiple diseases.

Close modal

In fact, the HPV L1 epitope YDDVENSGGYGGNPGQDNRV (IEDB ID: 111955) shares the sequence

  • YDDVEN with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 that is related to slowed nerve conduction velocity and thin myelination of peripheral nerves [75];

  • SGGYGG with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 that is a target for antinuclear autoantibodies in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) [76]; its alteration in Alzheimer’s disease impairs cortical splicing and cognitive function [77] and relates to multisystem proteinopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [78];

  • SGGYGG with transcription factor Sp7 that is implicated in altered osteogenesis [79], and with keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1b or K1b expressed in skin and hair follicle, so that alteration of K1b may lead to hair loss [80];

  • SGGYGG with TATA-binding protein-associated factor 2N, alterations of which are implicated in ALS [81-83];

  • SGGYGG with ATP-dependent RNA helicase A, knockdown of which increases the amount of viral-derived circular RNA produced during HBV replication and the viral protein levels [84];

  • GYGGNP with SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily D member 1. This protein regulates hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation and its alterations can relate to metabolic syndrome [85];

  • GNPGQD with collagen alpha-3(VI) chain precursor, alterations of which are related to dystonia syndrome [86], microstructural white matter abnormalities [87], and muscular dystrophy [88, 89];

  • GQDNR with BET1-like protein that associates with uterine fibroid risk [90] and with myelin-associated glycoprotein that can contribute/lead to Charcot--Marie-Tooth 1A disease [91], hypomyelinating leukodystrophy [92], and axial propriospinal myoclonus [93].

The Immunological Implications of the Peptide Sharing between HPV L1 Epitopes and Human Proteins

Immunologically, the present data dismantle the main argument against autoimmunity. Indeed, it is assumed [19, 20] that lymphocytes with specificity for peptides that are expressed in the human host do not proliferate and are deleted from the immunological repertoire during fetal or early life in order to avoid self-reactivity. Based on this assumption, cross-reactivity and the consequent autoimmune diseases have been and are considered as rare phenomena caused by an incomplete negative selection of self-reactive lymphocytes that produces the so-called “immunological holes” [19, 20, 94]. Accordingly, considering viruses as triggers of autoimmunity has been defined to be more a fantasy rather than a fact [95]. In conflict, we document here that the totality of the experimentally validated immunoreactive HPV L1 epitopes is mostly composed by peptides present in human proteins. This means that immune attacks against such HPV L1 epitopes concretize a real risk of cross-reactions with the human proteins that share the epitopic peptide sequences and are a prelude to autoimmune pathologies. Furthermore, it appears that the self-reactive lymphocytes that produced the immune responses against the 186 HPV epitopes analyzed here have never been eliminated. In reality, it seems that the process of negative selection of self-reactive lymphocytes does not exist at all.

Rather, the widespread peptide commonality configures a non-reactivity status in almost all lymphocytes from fetal development to final differentiation, so that anti-pathogen (and cross-reactive) immune responses can occur only in the presence of stimuli such as adjuvants [96], lipopolysaccharides [97], altered glycosylation patterns [98], posttranslational modifications as citrullination [99], and chemical modification as oxidation [100] and glycation [101]. In this context, peptide commonality might also explain the silent “immunotolerated” chronic pathogen infections [102] and, as well, the vaccinology failure to induce powerful, specific, and safe immune responses against infectious agents [103]. In essence, peptide sharing with microbial proteins and, in general, with all proteomes is a condition intrinsic to human proteins and reifies immunotolerance, whereas immunogenicity resides in and identifies with peptide sequences that are extraneous to the human host (Table 2) [104].

This study shows a massive viral versus human peptide sharing that involves immunoreactive HPV epitopes and a highest number of human proteins that may be associated – when inhibited, deleted, mutated, modified, or improperly functioning – with pathologies and autoimmune disorders. Specifically, the present data indicate that, via cross-reactivity, the immune responses that follow HPV infections/active immunizations might lead to premature ovarian failure, oocyte DNA damage, lupus manifestations, susceptibility to breast/ovarian cancer, neuropsychiatric diseases, hypotension and dysregulation of blood pressure, cardiac disorders, and, even, sudden death. Clinically, such a vast cross-reactivity potential explains the multiple autoimmune disease syndromes that can follow infections/active immunization [105]. From the immunological point of view, the data pose fundamental questions on the negative selection issue and warrant further research. Moreover and of note, the here described analysis of experimentally validated immunoreactive epitopes not only highlights the effective cross-reactive potential capable of leading to pathologic autoimmune sequelae but also defines a scientific procedure for identifying peptide sequences to be used for safe immunotherapeutic protocols exempt of adverse events [106-108].

This research received no specific grants from any funding agency in public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

The authors have no ethical conflicts to disclose.

D.K.: declares no conflicts. Y.S.: is a medical consultant in vaccine compensation court, USA.

1.
Janeway CAJr
.
Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik MJ: Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease
.
New York
:
Garland Science
;
2001
.
2.
Nielsen
PR
,
Kragstrup
TW
,
Deleuran
BW
,
Benros
ME
.
Infections as risk factor for autoimmune diseases - A nationwide study
.
J Autoimmun
.
2016
Nov
;
74
:
176
81
.
[PubMed]
0896-8411
3.
Honkanen
H
,
Oikarinen
S
,
Nurminen
N
,
Laitinen
OH
,
Huhtala
H
,
Lehtonen
J
, et al
Detection of enteroviruses in stools precedes islet autoimmunity by several months: possible evidence for slowly operating mechanisms in virus-induced autoimmunity
.
Diabetologia
.
2017
Mar
;
60
(
3
):
424
31
.
[PubMed]
0012-186X
4.
Sakkas
LI
,
Daoussis
D
,
Liossis
SN
,
Bogdanos
DP
.
The infectious basis of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis
.
Front Microbiol
.
2017
Sep
;
8
:
1853
.
[PubMed]
1664-302X
5.
Alaedini
A
,
Lebwohl
B
,
Wormser
GP
,
Green
PH
,
Ludvigsson
JF
.
Borrelia infection and risk of celiac disease
.
BMC Med
.
2017
Sep
;
15
(
1
):
169
.
[PubMed]
1741-7015
6.
Blackmore
S
,
Hernandez
J
,
Juda
M
,
Ryder
E
,
Freund
GG
,
Johnson
RW
, et al
Influenza infection triggers disease in a genetic model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
2017
Jul
;
114
(
30
):
E6107
16
.
[PubMed]
0027-8424
7.
Kemppainen
KM
,
Lynch
KF
,
Liu
E
,
Lönnrot
M
,
Simell
V
,
Briese
T
, et al;
TEDDY Study Group
.
Factors that increase risk of celiac disease autoimmunity after a gastrointestinal infection in early life
.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol
.
2017
May
;
15
(
5
):
694
702.e5
.
[PubMed]
1542-3565
8.
Mustonen
N
,
Siljander
H
,
Peet
A
,
Tillmann
V
,
Härkönen
T
,
Ilonen
J
, et al;
DIABIMMUNE Study Group
.
Early childhood infections precede development of beta-cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in children with HLA-conferred disease risk
.
Pediatr Diabetes
.
2018
Mar
;
19
(
2
):
293
9
.
[PubMed]
1399-543X
9.
Burgueño-Montañés
C
,
Álvarez-Coronado
M
,
Colunga-Cueva
M
.
Autoimmune neuroretinopathy secondary to Zika virus infection
.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
.
2018
Jul
;
93
(
7
):
336
41
.
[PubMed]
0365-6691
10.
Fujinami
RS
,
Oldstone
MB
,
Wroblewska
Z
,
Frankel
ME
,
Koprowski
H
.
Molecular mimicry in virus infection: crossreaction of measles virus phosphoprotein or of herpes simplex virus protein with human intermediate filaments
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
1983
Apr
;
80
(
8
):
2346
50
.
[PubMed]
0027-8424
11.
Oldstone
MB
.
Molecular mimicry: its evolution from concept to mechanism as a cause of autoimmune diseases
.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
.
2014
Jun
;
33
(
3
):
158
65
.
[PubMed]
2167-9436
12.
Natale
C
,
Giannini
T
,
Lucchese
A
,
Kanduc
D
.
Computer-assisted analysis of molecular mimicry between human papillomavirus 16 E7 oncoprotein and human protein sequences
.
Immunol Cell Biol
.
2000
Dec
;
78
(
6
):
580
5
.
[PubMed]
0818-9641
13.
Kanduc
D
,
Stufano
A
,
Lucchese
G
,
Kusalik
A
.
Massive peptide sharing between viral and human proteomes
.
Peptides
.
2008
Oct
;
29
(
10
):
1755
66
.
[PubMed]
0196-9781
14.
Trost
B
,
Lucchese
G
,
Stufano
A
,
Bickis
M
,
Kusalik
A
,
Kanduc
D
.
No human protein is exempt from bacterial motifs, not even one
.
Self Nonself
.
2010
Oct
;
1
(
4
):
328
34
.
[PubMed]
1938-2030
15.
Lucchese
G
,
Capone
G
,
Kanduc
D
.
Peptide sharing between influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin and human axon guidance proteins
.
Schizophr Bull
.
2014
Mar
;
40
(
2
):
362
75
.
[PubMed]
0586-7614
16.
Lucchese
G
.
Understanding neuropsychiatric diseases, analyzing the peptide sharing between infectious agents and the language-associated NMDA 2A protein
.
Front Psychiatry
.
2016
Apr
;
7
:
60
.
[PubMed]
1664-0640
17.
Lucchese
G
.
From toxoplasmosis to schizophrenia via NMDA dysfunction: peptide overlap between Toxoplasma gondii and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors as a potential mechanistic link
.
Front Psychiatry
.
2017
Mar
;
8
:
37
.
[PubMed]
1664-0640
18.
Kanduc
D
,
Shoenfeld
Y
.
Inter-pathogen peptide sharing and the original antigenic sin: solving a paradox
.
Open Immunol J
.
2018
;
8
(
1
):
11
27
. 1874-2262
19.
Cohn
M
.
Two unresolved problems facing models of the Self-Nonself discrimination
.
J Theor Biol
.
2015
Dec
;
387
:
31
8
.
[PubMed]
0022-5193
20.
Rose
NR
.
Negative selection, epitope mimicry and autoimmunity
.
Curr Opin Immunol
.
2017
Dec
;
49
:
51
5
.
[PubMed]
0952-7915
21.
Reddehase
MJ
,
Rothbard
JB
,
Koszinowski
UH
.
A pentapeptide as minimal antigenic determinant for MHC class I-restricted T lymphocytes
.
Nature
.
1989
Feb
;
337
(
6208
):
651
3
.
[PubMed]
0028-0836
22.
Zeng
W
,
Pagnon
J
,
Jackson
DC
.
The C-terminal pentapeptide of LHRH is a dominant B cell epitope with antigenic and biological function
.
Mol Immunol
.
2007
Jul
;
44
(
15
):
3724
31
.
[PubMed]
0161-5890
23.
Kanduc
D
.
Homology, similarity, and identity in peptide epitope immunodefinition
.
J Pept Sci
.
2012
Aug
;
18
(
8
):
487
94
.
[PubMed]
1075-2617
24.
Kanduc
D
.
Pentapeptides as minimal functional units in cell biology and immunology
.
Curr Protein Pept Sci
.
2013
Mar
;
14
(
2
):
111
20
.
[PubMed]
1389-2037
25.
Hao
SS
,
Zong
MM
,
Zhang
Z
,
Cai
JX
,
Zheng
Y
,
Feng
XL
, et al
The inducing roles of the new isolated bursal hexapeptide and pentapeptide on the immune response of AIV vaccine in mice
.
Protein Pept Lett
.
2019
;
26
(
7
):
542
9
.
[PubMed]
0929-8665
26.
Godi
A
,
Facchetti
A
,
Bissett
SL
,
Cocuzza
C
,
Miller
E
,
Beddows
S
.
Naturally occurring major and minor capsid protein variants of Human Papillomavirus 45 (HPV45): differential recognition by cross-neutralizing antibodies generated by HPV vaccines
.
J Virol
.
2015
Dec
;
90
(
6
):
3247
52
.
[PubMed]
0022-538X
27.
Vita
R
,
Mahajan
S
,
Overton
JA
,
Dhanda
SK
,
Martini
S
,
Cantrell
JR
, et al
The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB): 2018 update
.
Nucleic Acids Res
.
2019
Jan
;
47
D1
:
D339
43
.
[PubMed]
0305-1048
28.
Chen
C
,
Li
Z
,
Huang
H
,
Suzek
BE
,
Wu
CH
;
UniProt Consortium
.
A fast Peptide Match service for UniProt Knowledgebase
.
Bioinformatics
.
2013
Nov
;
29
(
21
):
2808
9
.
[PubMed]
1367-4803
29.
UniProt Consortium
.
UniProt: a worldwide hub of protein knowledge
.
Nucleic Acids Res
.
2019
Jan
;
47
D1
:
D506
15
.
[PubMed]
0305-1048
30.
Kanduc
D
.
The comparative biochemistry of viruses and humans: an evolutionary path towards autoimmunity
.
Biol Chem
.
2019
Apr
;
400
(
5
):
629
38
.
[PubMed]
1431-6730
31.
Wood-Trageser
MA
,
Gurbuz
F
,
Yatsenko
SA
,
Jeffries
EP
,
Kotan
LD
,
Surti
U
, et al
MCM9 mutations are associated with ovarian failure, short stature, and chromosomal instability
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2014
Dec
;
95
(
6
):
754
62
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
32.
Guo
H
,
Zhu
P
,
Yan
L
,
Li
R
,
Hu
B
,
Lian
Y
, et al
The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos
.
Nature
.
2014
Jul
;
511
(
7511
):
606
10
.
[PubMed]
0028-0836
33.
Andreu-Vieyra
CV
,
Chen
R
,
Agno
JE
,
Glaser
S
,
Anastassiadis
K
,
Stewart
AF
, et al
MLL2 is required in oocytes for bulk histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation and transcriptional silencing
.
PLoS Biol
.
2010
Aug
;
8
(
8
):
e1000453
.
[PubMed]
1544-9173
34.
Morimoto
A
,
Shibuya
H
,
Zhu
X
,
Kim
J
,
Ishiguro
K
,
Han
M
, et al
A conserved KASH domain protein associates with telomeres, SUN1, and dynactin during mammalian meiosis
.
J Cell Biol
.
2012
Jul
;
198
(
2
):
165
72
.
[PubMed]
0021-9525
35.
Mizusawa
Y
,
Kuji
N
,
Tanaka
Y
,
Tanaka
M
,
Ikeda
E
,
Komatsu
S
, et al
Expression of human oocyte-specific linker histone protein and its incorporation into sperm chromatin during fertilization
.
Fertil Steril
.
2010
Mar
;
93
(
4
):
1134
41
.
[PubMed]
0015-0282
36.
Bione
S
,
Sala
C
,
Manzini
C
,
Arrigo
G
,
Zuffardi
O
,
Banfi
S
, et al
A human homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster diaphanous gene is disrupted in a patient with premature ovarian failure: evidence for conserved function in oogenesis and implications for human sterility
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
1998
Mar
;
62
(
3
):
533
41
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
37.
Antoniou
A
,
Pharoah
PD
,
Narod
S
,
Risch
HA
,
Eyfjord
JE
,
Hopper
JL
, et al
Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case Series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2003
May
;
72
(
5
):
1117
30
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
38.
Jääskeläinen
M
,
Nieminen
A
,
Pökkylä
RM
,
Kauppinen
M
,
Liakka
A
,
Heikinheimo
M
, et al
Regulation of cell death in human fetal and adult ovaries—role of Bok and Bcl-X(L)
.
Mol Cell Endocrinol
.
2010
Dec
;
330
(
1-2
):
17
24
.
[PubMed]
0303-7207
39.
Di Pasquale
E
,
Beck-Peccoz
P
,
Persani
L
.
Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure associated with an inherited mutation of human bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) gene
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2004
Jul
;
75
(
1
):
106
11
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
40.
Kasippillai
T
,
MacArthur
DG
,
Kirby
A
,
Thomas
B
,
Lambalk
CB
,
Daly
MJ
, et al
Mutations in eIF4ENIF1 are associated with primary ovarian insufficiency
.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
.
2013
Sep
;
98
(
9
):
E1534
9
.
[PubMed]
0021-972X
41.
Martins da Silva
SJ
,
Bayne
RA
,
Cambray
N
,
Hartley
PS
,
McNeilly
AS
,
Anderson
RA
.
Expression of activin subunits and receptors in the developing human ovary: activin A promotes germ cell survival and proliferation before primordial follicle formation
.
Dev Biol
.
2004
Feb
;
266
(
2
):
334
45
.
[PubMed]
0012-1606
42.
Dam
AH
,
Koscinski
I
,
Kremer
JA
,
Moutou
C
,
Jaeger
AS
,
Oudakker
AR
, et al
Homozygous mutation in SPATA16 is associated with male infertility in human globozoospermia
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2007
Oct
;
81
(
4
):
813
20
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
43.
Yan
W
,
Ma
L
,
Burns
KH
,
Matzuk
MM
.
HILS1 is a spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein implicated in chromatin remodeling during mammalian spermiogenesis
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
2003
Sep
;
100
(
18
):
10546
51
.
[PubMed]
0027-8424
44.
Matsuoka
Y
,
Miyagawa
Y
,
Tokuhiro
K
,
Kitamura
K
,
Iguchi
N
,
Maekawa
M
, et al
Isolation and characterization of the spermatid-specific Smrp1 gene encoding a novel manchette protein
.
Mol Reprod Dev
.
2008
Jun
;
75
(
6
):
967
75
.
[PubMed]
1040-452X
45.
Lehti
MS
,
Henriksson
H
,
Rummukainen
P
,
Wang
F
,
Uusitalo-Kylmälä
L
,
Kiviranta
R
, et al
Cilia-related protein SPEF2 regulates osteoblast differentiation
.
Sci Rep
.
2018
Jan
;
8
(
1
):
859
.
[PubMed]
2045-2322
46.
Yang
YR
,
Kang
DS
,
Lee
C
,
Seok
H
,
Follo
MY
,
Cocco
L
, et al
Primary phospholipase C and brain disorders
.
Adv Biol Regul
.
2016
May
;
61
:
80
5
.
[PubMed]
2212-4926
47.
Pang
JC
,
Dong
Z
,
Zhang
R
,
Liu
Y
,
Zhou
LF
,
Chan
BW
, et al
Mutation analysis of DMBT1 in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and oligodendroglial tumors
.
Int J Cancer
.
2003
May
;
105
(
1
):
76
81
.
[PubMed]
0020-7136
48.
Andries
V
,
Vandepoele
K
,
Staes
K
,
Berx
G
,
Bogaert
P
,
Van Isterdael
G
, et al
NBPF1, a tumor suppressor candidate in neuroblastoma, exerts growth inhibitory effects by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest
.
BMC Cancer
.
2015
May
;
15
(
1
):
391
.
[PubMed]
1471-2407
49.
Kehrer-Sawatzki
H
,
Cooper
DN
.
Mosaicism in sporadic neurofibromatosis type 1: variations on a theme common to other hereditary cancer syndromes?
J Med Genet
.
2008
Oct
;
45
(
10
):
622
31
.
[PubMed]
0022-2593
50.
Kim
YO
,
Nam
TS
,
Park
C
,
Kim
SK
,
Yoon
W
,
Choi
SY
, et al
Familial pachygyria in both genders related to a DCX mutation
.
Brain Dev
.
2016
Jun
;
38
(
6
):
585
9
.
[PubMed]
0387-7604
51.
Maliniemi
P
,
Carlsson
E
,
Kaukola
A
,
Ovaska
K
,
Niiranen
K
,
Saksela
O
, et al
NAV3 copy number changes and target genes in basal and squamous cell cancers
.
Exp Dermatol
.
2011
Nov
;
20
(
11
):
926
31
.
[PubMed]
0906-6705
52.
Silva
JP
,
Lelianova
VG
,
Ermolyuk
YS
,
Vysokov
N
,
Hitchen
PG
,
Berninghausen
O
, et al
Latrophilin 1 and its endogenous ligand Lasso/teneurin-2 form a high-affinity transsynaptic receptor pair with signaling capabilities
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
2011
Jul
;
108
(
29
):
12113
8
.
[PubMed]
0027-8424
53.
Li
J
,
Shalev-Benami
M
,
Sando
R
,
Jiang
X
,
Kibrom
A
,
Wang
J
, et al
Structural basis for teneurin function in circuit-wiring: a toxin motif at the synapse
.
Cell
.
2018
Apr
;
173
(
3
):
735
748.e15
.
[PubMed]
0092-8674
54.
Ferralli
J
,
Tucker
RP
,
Chiquet-Ehrismann
R
.
The teneurin C-terminal domain possesses nuclease activity and is apoptogenic
.
Biol Open
.
2018
Mar
;
7
(
3
):
bio031765
.
[PubMed]
2046-6390
55.
Graumann
R
,
Di Capua
GA
,
Oyarzún
JE
,
Vásquez
MA
,
Liao
C
,
Brañes
JA
, et al
Expression of teneurins is associated with tumor differentiation and patient survival in ovarian cancer
.
PLoS One
.
2017
May
;
12
(
5
):
e0177244
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
56.
Tsokos
GC
,
Gordon
C
,
Smolen
JS
, editors
.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Companion to Rheumatology
.
Philadelphia
:
Mosby Elsevier
;
2007
.
57.
Wang
B
,
Shao
X
,
Wang
D
,
Xu
D
,
Zhang
JA
.
Vaccinations and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
.
Autoimmun Rev
.
2017
Jul
;
16
(
7
):
756
65
.
[PubMed]
1568-9972
58.
Garg
M
,
Mufti
N
,
Palmore
TN
,
Hasni
SA
.
Recommendations and barriers to vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus
.
Autoimmun Rev
.
2018
Oct
;
17
(
10
):
990
1001
.
[PubMed]
1568-9972
59.
Tayebati
SK
,
Lokhandwala
MF
,
Amenta
F
.
Dopamine and vascular dynamics control: present status and future perspectives
.
Curr Neurovasc Res
.
2011
Aug
;
8
(
3
):
246
57
.
[PubMed]
1567-2026
60.
Martikainen
IK
,
Hagelberg
N
,
Jääskeläinen
SK
,
Hietala
J
,
Pertovaara
A
.
Dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms in the modulation of pain: in vivo studies in human brain
.
Eur J Pharmacol
.
2018
Sep
;
834
:
337
45
.
[PubMed]
0014-2999
61.
Jiang
YC
,
Wu
HM
,
Cheng
KH
,
Sunny Sun
H
.
Menstrual cycle-dependent febrile episode mediated by sequence-specific repression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 on the transcription of the human serotonin receptor 1A gene
.
Hum Mutat
.
2012
Jan
;
33
(
1
):
209
17
.
[PubMed]
1059-7794
62.
Stam
NJ
,
Roesink
C
,
Dijcks
F
,
Garritsen
A
,
van Herpen
A
,
Olijve
W
.
Human serotonin 5-HT7 receptor: cloning and pharmacological characterisation of two receptor variants
.
FEBS Lett
.
1997
Aug
;
413
(
3
):
489
94
.
[PubMed]
0014-5793
63.
Oliver
E
,
Rovira
E
,
Montó
F
,
Valldecabres
C
,
Julve
R
,
Muedra
V
, et al
beta-Adrenoceptor and GRK3 expression in human lymphocytes is related to blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion
.
J Hypertens
.
2010
Jun
;
28
(
6
):
1281
9
.
[PubMed]
1473-5598
64.
da Costa Goncalves
AC
,
Fontes
MA
,
Klussmann
E
,
Qadri
F
,
Janke
J
,
Gollasch
M
, et al
Spinophilin regulates central angiotensin II-mediated effect on blood pressure
.
J Mol Med (Berl)
.
2011
Dec
;
89
(
12
):
1219
29
.
[PubMed]
0946-2716
65.
Sternlicht
H
,
Bakris
GL
.
Blood pressure lowering and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is): more than osmotic diuresis
.
Curr Hypertens Rep
.
2019
Feb
;
21
(
2
):
12
.
[PubMed]
1522-6417
66.
Kalstrup
T
,
Blunck
R
.
S4-S5 linker movement during activation and inactivation in voltage-gated K+ channels
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
2018
Jul
;
115
(
29
):
E6751
9
.
[PubMed]
0027-8424
67.
Giudicessi
JR
,
Ye
D
,
Kritzberger
CJ
,
Nesterenko
VV
,
Tester
DJ
,
Antzelevitch
C
, et al
Novel mutations in the KCND3-encoded Kv4.3 K+ channel associated with autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death
.
Hum Mutat
.
2012
Jun
;
33
(
6
):
989
97
.
[PubMed]
1059-7794
68.
Lazzerini
PE
,
Capecchi
PL
,
Laghi-Pasini
F
,
Boutjdir
M
.
Autoimmune channelopathies as a novel mechanism in cardiac arrhythmias
.
Nat Rev Cardiol
.
2017
Sep
;
14
(
9
):
521
35
.
[PubMed]
1759-5002
69.
Nava
C
,
Dalle
C
,
Rastetter
A
,
Striano
P
,
de Kovel
CG
,
Nabbout
R
, et al;
EuroEPINOMICS RES Consortium
.
De novo mutations in HCN1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
.
Nat Genet
.
2014
Jun
;
46
(
6
):
640
5
.
[PubMed]
1061-4036
70.
Dibbens
LM
,
Reid
CA
,
Hodgson
B
,
Thomas
EA
,
Phillips
AM
,
Gazina
E
, et al
Augmented currents of an HCN2 variant in patients with febrile seizure syndromes
.
Ann Neurol
.
2010
Apr
;
67
(
4
):
542
6
.
[PubMed]
0364-5134
71.
Campuzano
O
,
Sanchez-Molero
O
,
Mademont-Soler
I
,
Riuró
H
,
Allegue
C
,
Coll
M
, et al
Rare Titin (TTN) variants in diseases associated with sudden cardiac death
.
Int J Mol Sci
.
2015
Oct
;
16
(
10
):
25773
87
.
[PubMed]
1661-6596
72.
Nakagami
H
,
Kikuchi
Y
,
Katsuya
T
,
Morishita
R
,
Akasaka
H
,
Saitoh
S
, et al
Gene polymorphism of myospryn (cardiomyopathy-associated 5) is associated with left ventricular wall thickness in patients with hypertension
.
Hypertens Res
.
2007
Dec
;
30
(
12
):
1239
46
.
[PubMed]
0916-9636
73.
Devalla
HD
,
Gélinas
R
,
Aburawi
EH
,
Beqqali
A
,
Goyette
P
,
Freund
C
, et al
TECRL, a new life-threatening inherited arrhythmia gene associated with overlapping clinical features of both LQTS and CPVT
.
EMBO Mol Med
.
2016
Dec
;
8
(
12
):
1390
408
.
[PubMed]
1757-4676
74.
Huang
XC
,
Wang
W
.
Association of MEF2A gene 3'UTR mutations with coronary artery disease
.
Genet Mol Res
.
2015
Sep
;
14
(
3
):
11073
8
.
[PubMed]
1676-5680
75.
Verhoeven
K
,
De Jonghe
P
,
Van de Putte
T
,
Nelis
E
,
Zwijsen
A
,
Verpoorten
N
, et al
Slowed conduction and thin myelination of peripheral nerves associated with mutant rho Guanine-nucleotide exchange factor 10
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2003
Oct
;
73
(
4
):
926
32
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
76.
Beleoken
E
,
Leh
H
,
Arnoux
A
,
Ducot
B
,
Nogues
C
,
De Martin
E
, et al
SPRi-based strategy to identify specific biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis
.
PLoS One
.
2013
Dec
;
8
(
12
):
e84600
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
77.
Berson
A
,
Barbash
S
,
Shaltiel
G
,
Goll
Y
,
Hanin
G
,
Greenberg
DS
, et al
Cholinergic-associated loss of hnRNP-A/B in Alzheimer’s disease impairs cortical splicing and cognitive function in mice
.
EMBO Mol Med
.
2012
Aug
;
4
(
8
):
730
42
.
[PubMed]
1757-4676
78.
Kim
HJ
,
Kim
NC
,
Wang
YD
,
Scarborough
EA
,
Moore
J
,
Diaz
Z
, et al
Mutations in prion-like domains in hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 cause multisystem proteinopathy and ALS
.
Nature
.
2013
Mar
;
495
(
7442
):
467
73
.
[PubMed]
0028-0836
79.
Baek
WY
,
de Crombrugghe
B
,
Kim
JE
.
Postnatally induced inactivation of Osterix in osteoblasts results in the reduction of bone formation and maintenance
.
Bone
.
2010
Apr
;
46
(
4
):
920
8
.
[PubMed]
8756-3282
80.
Rogers
MA
,
Edler
L
,
Winter
H
,
Langbein
L
,
Beckmann
I
,
Schweizer
J
.
Characterization of new members of the human type II keratin gene family and a general evaluation of the keratin gene domain on chromosome 12q13.13
.
J Invest Dermatol
.
2005
Mar
;
124
(
3
):
536
44
.
[PubMed]
0022-202X
81.
Ticozzi
N
,
Vance
C
,
Leclerc
AL
,
Keagle
P
,
Glass
JD
,
McKenna-Yasek
D
, et al
Mutational analysis reveals the FUS homolog TAF15 as a candidate gene for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet
.
2011
Apr
;
156B
(
3
):
285
90
.
[PubMed]
1552-4841
82.
Kim
Y
,
Kim
HJ
,
Cha
SJ
,
Choi
HJ
,
Kim
H
,
Lee
S
, et al
Genetic activation of parkin rescues TAF15-induced neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
.
Neurobiol Aging
.
2019
Jan
;
73
:
68
73
.
[PubMed]
0197-4580
83.
Kapeli
K
,
Pratt
GA
,
Vu
AQ
,
Hutt
KR
,
Martinez
FJ
,
Sundararaman
B
, et al
Distinct and shared functions of ALS-associated proteins TDP-43, FUS and TAF15 revealed by multisystem analyses
.
Nat Commun
.
2016
Jul
;
7
(
1
):
12143
.
[PubMed]
2041-1723
84.
Sekiba
K
,
Otsuka
M
,
Ohno
M
,
Kishikawa
T
,
Yamagami
M
,
Suzuki
T
, et al
DHX9 regulates production of hepatitis B virus-derived circular RNA and viral protein levels
.
Oncotarget
.
2018
Apr
;
9
(
30
):
20953
64
.
[PubMed]
1949-2553
85.
Wang
RR
,
Pan
R
,
Zhang
W
,
Fu
J
,
Lin
JD
,
Meng
ZX
.
The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling factors BAF60a, b, and c in nutrient signaling and metabolic control
.
Protein Cell
.
2018
Feb
;
9
(
2
):
207
15
.
[PubMed]
1674-800X
86.
Zech
M
,
Lam
DD
,
Francescatto
L
,
Schormair
B
,
Salminen
AV
,
Jochim
A
, et al
Recessive mutations in the α3 (VI) collagen gene COL6A3 cause early-onset isolated dystonia
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2015
Jun
;
96
(
6
):
883
93
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
87.
Jochim
A
,
Li
Y
,
Zech
M
,
Lam
D
,
Gross
N
,
Koch
K
, et al
Microstructural white matter abnormalities in patients with COL6A3 mutations (DYT27 dystonia)
.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord
.
2018
Jan
;
46
:
74
8
.
[PubMed]
1353-8020
88.
Demir
E
,
Sabatelli
P
,
Allamand
V
,
Ferreiro
A
,
Moghadaszadeh
B
,
Makrelouf
M
, et al
Mutations in COL6A3 cause severe and mild phenotypes of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2002
Jun
;
70
(
6
):
1446
58
.
[PubMed]
0002-9297
89.
Lampe
AK
,
Dunn
DM
,
von Niederhausern
AC
,
Hamil
C
,
Aoyagi
A
,
Laval
SH
, et al
Automated genomic sequence analysis of the three collagen VI genes: applications to Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy
.
J Med Genet
.
2005
Feb
;
42
(
2
):
108
20
.
[PubMed]
0022-2593
90.
Edwards
TL
,
Michels
KA
,
Hartmann
KE
,
Velez Edwards
DR
.
BET1L and TNRC6B associate with uterine fibroid risk among European Americans
.
Hum Genet
.
2013
Aug
;
132
(
8
):
943
53
.
[PubMed]
0340-6717
91.
Kinter
J
,
Lazzati
T
,
Schmid
D
,
Zeis
T
,
Erne
B
,
Lützelschwab
R
, et al
An essential role of MAG in mediating axon-myelin attachment in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease
.
Neurobiol Dis
.
2013
Jan
;
49
:
221
31
.
[PubMed]
0969-9961
92.
Lossos
A
,
Elazar
N
,
Lerer
I
,
Schueler-Furman
O
,
Fellig
Y
,
Glick
B
, et al
Myelin-associated glycoprotein gene mutation causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like disorder
.
Brain
.
2015
Sep
;
138
(
Pt 9
):
2521
36
.
[PubMed]
0006-8950
93.
Vetrugno
R
,
Liguori
R
,
D’Alessandro
R
,
D’Angelo
R
,
Alessandria
M
,
Montagna
P
.
Axial myoclonus in paraproteinemic polyneuropathy
.
Muscle Nerve
.
2008
Oct
;
38
(
4
):
1330
5
.
[PubMed]
0148-639X
94.
Rose
NR
.
Learning from myocarditis: mimicry, chaos and black holes
.
F1000Prime Rep
.
2014
May
;
6
:
25
.
[PubMed]
2051-7599
95.
Whitton
JL
,
Fujinami
RS
.
Viruses as triggers of autoimmunity: facts and fantasies
.
Curr Opin Microbiol
.
1999
Aug
;
2
(
4
):
392
7
.
[PubMed]
1369-5274
96.
Crowe
W
,
Allsopp
PJ
,
Watson
GE
,
Magee
PJ
,
Strain
JJ
,
Armstrong
DJ
, et al
Mercury as an environmental stimulus in the development of autoimmunity - A systematic review
.
Autoimmun Rev
.
2017
Jan
;
16
(
1
):
72
80
.
[PubMed]
1568-9972
97.
Vatanen
T
,
Kostic
AD
,
d’Hennezel
E
,
Siljander
H
,
Franzosa
EA
,
Yassour
M
, et al;
DIABIMMUNE Study Group
.
Variation in microbiome LPS immunogenicity contributes to autoimmunity in humans
.
Cell
.
2016
May
;
165
(
4
):
842
53
.
[PubMed]
0092-8674
98.
Zhou
Q
,
Qiu
H
.
The mechanistic impact of N-glycosylation on stability, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins
.
J Pharm Sci
.
2019
Apr
;
108
(
4
):
1366
77
.
[PubMed]
0022-3549
99.
Travers
TS
,
Harlow
L
,
Rosas
IO
,
Gochuico
BR
,
Mikuls
TR
,
Bhattacharya
SK
, et al
Extensive citrullination promotes immunogenicity of HSP90 through protein unfolding and exposure of cryptic epitopes
.
J Immunol
.
2016
Sep
;
197
(
5
):
1926
36
.
[PubMed]
0022-1767
100.
Torosantucci
R
,
Sharov
VS
,
van Beers
M
,
Brinks
V
,
Schöneich
C
,
Jiskoot
W
.
Identification of oxidation sites and covalent cross-links in metal catalyzed oxidized interferon Beta-1a: potential implications for protein aggregation and immunogenicity
.
Mol Pharm
.
2013
Jun
;
10
(
6
):
2311
22
.
[PubMed]
1543-8384
101.
Ansari
NA
,
Dash
D
.
Amadori glycated proteins: role in production of autoantibodies in diabetes mellitus and effect of inhibitors on non-enzymatic glycation
.
Aging Dis
.
2013
Feb
;
4
(
1
):
50
6
.
[PubMed]
2152-5250
102.
Perley
CC
,
Brocato
RL
,
Kwilas
SA
,
Daye
S
,
Moreau
A
,
Nichols
DK
, et al
Three asymptomatic animal infection models of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by hantaviruses
.
PLoS One
.
2019
May
;
14
(
5
):
e0216700
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
103.
Poland
GA
,
Whitaker
JA
,
Poland
CM
,
Ovsyannikova
IG
,
Kennedy
RB
.
Vaccinology in the third millennium: scientific and social challenges
.
Curr Opin Virol
.
2016
Apr
;
17
:
116
25
.
[PubMed]
1879-6257
104.
Kanduc
D
.
Immunogenicity, immunopathogenicity, and immunotolerance in one graph
.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
.
2015
;
15
(
10
):
1264
8
.
[PubMed]
1871-5206
105.
Qiao
J
,
Zhou
G
,
Ding
Y
,
Zhu
D
,
Fang
H
.
Multiple paraneoplastic syndromes: myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, alopecia areata, and oral lichen planus associated with thymoma
.
J Neurol Sci
.
2011
Sep
;
308
(
1-2
):
177
9
.
[PubMed]
0022-510X
106.
Kanduc
D
.
The self/nonself issue: A confrontation between proteomes
.
Self Nonself
.
2010
Jul
;
1
(
3
):
255
8
.
[PubMed]
1938-2030
107.
Ryabkova
VA
,
Shubik
YV
,
Erman
MV
,
Churilov
LP
,
Kanduc
D
,
Shoenfeld
Y
.
Lethal immunoglobulins: autoantibodies and sudden cardiac death
.
Autoimmun Rev
.
2019
Apr
;
18
(
4
):
415
25
.
[PubMed]
1568-9972
108.
Kanduc
D
,
Shoenfeld
Y
.
From HBV to HPV: designing vaccines for extensive and intensive vaccination campaigns worldwide
.
Autoimmun Rev
.
2016
Nov
;
15
(
11
):
1054
61
.
[PubMed]
1568-9972
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.