Background: Ki-Ras is well studied in its oncogenic form in relation to pancreatic pathologies. However, the individual contribution of each of the wild-type Ras isoforms (Ha-, Ki-, and N-) in pancreatic cells in health and disease is unknown. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of normal (n = 6) and malignant pancreas (n = 35) were used for immuno-histochemical detection of Ras isoforms using a modified polymer system. In addition, immunogold labelling for Ras isoforms was done for subcellular localisation under electron microscopy. Results: Pancreatic ductal cells expressed Ha-Ras in the cytoplasm, with Ki-Ras in the apical region and N-Ras (50% of cases) in a supranuclear distribution. Pancreatic acinar cells express all three isoforms with some nuclear expression of Ki-Ras and supranuclear expression of N-Ras. Islets show Ki- and Ha-Ras mainly with differential expression of Ha-Ras (β cells showing less Ha-Ras and more Ki-Ras than α cells). Electron microscopy shows that Ha-Ras is mainly localised in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the acinar cells with some plasma membrane localisation of Ki-Ras in the ductal cells. There was no change in any of the Ras isoform expression in the ductal or acinar cells in various malignancies studied (Mann-Whitney U test, p > 0.1). Conclusions: Ras isoforms have distinct and separate cellular and subcellular distribution that may persist even in the malignantly transformed state. Understanding this distinct functional distribution patterns in detail is an essential step if mutant Ki-Ras is to be targeted in the pancreas by genetic or molecular therapeutic tools.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.