Introduction: Breast cancer patients (BCP) experience considerable side effects during and after treatment. Several studies have shown positive effects of exercise on therapy-related side-effects such as loss of muscle strength, loss of bone mineral density, lymphedema, and several elements of quality of life (QoL). Resistance exercise has proven effective and beneficial for BCP; however, optimal individual training parameters remain to be determined. Methods: The aim of our study was to implement an adaptive, progressive, supervised resistance protocol for BCPs during chemotherapy, improving muscle strength, physical condition, and overall QoL while reducing therapy-induced side-effects. Forty patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were included 6–12 weeks post-OP. Twenty patients underwent high intensity resistance-training twice a week for 12 weeks, and the control group received usual care. Results: Strength parameters improved significantly in the intervention group and in different scales of QoL. We documented a cyclic performance level dependent on the number of days after treatment. Conclusion: Adaptive resistance training with simple training control mechanisms proved to be effective regarding optimal intensity in each training session and needs to be implemented in further studies in order to guarantee adequate loads in accordance to the training protocols.

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