Introduction: To determine whether complete decongestive therapy (CDT) used in breast cancer-related lymphedema affects muscle strength in the affected arm while assessing the efficacy of the therapy itself. Material and Methods: Seventy-four patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema were included in this study. The demographic and clinical history characteristics of the patients were taken. The patients were then evaluated with measurements of extremity volumes and handgrip strengths using a hand dynamometer before and after the CDT. Data were then assessed using relevant statistical methods. Results: The mean CDT duration was 17.5 ± 8.93 days for the patients. Therapy resulted in significant improvement in the affected arm (p < 0.01). The difference between the arm with lymphedema and the other side was statistically significant, and this difference remained after the therapy (p < 0.01). The change in handgrip strength in the side with lymphedema was not found to be statistically significant after therapy (p > 0.05). Handgrip strength differences and volume differences before and after the treatment in the affected arm were not correlated (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Limbs affected with lymphedema were found to be weaker in handgrip strength and this weakness continued throughout the therapy. Strengthening exercises should be considered to be added into the treatment of patients undergoing CDT to gain better functional potential.

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