Objectives: The clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and effects on the prognosis of pure squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: 86 patients with pure SqCC and AC bladder cancer were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of the 86 patients, 51 had SqCC and 35 had AC. No differences in clinicopathological characteristics were observed between patients with AC and SqCC, except for the prevalence of T4 disease (28.6% vs. 51.0%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, older age, stage IV disease, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (> 2) were predictive of a poor overall survival (OS). The median OS was significantly longer for stage I-III patients (82.9 months) treated with surgery ± chemotherapy (CT) ± radiotherapy (RT) than for those treated with transurethral resection ± CT ± RT (24.3 months) (P = 0.007). The median OS of patients with SqCC and AC who were given platinum-based CT for metastasis was 7.7 and 30.3 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age, stage IV disease, and poor ECOG performance status were factors associated with a poor prognosis. Surgery ± CT ± RT resulted in significantly better OS, except in stage IV disease. Patients with metastatic AC had better response rates with platinum-based CT.

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