Purpose: To develop a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual model of a human temporal bone and surrounding structures. Methods: A fresh-frozen human temporal bone was serially sectioned and digital images of the surface of the tissue block were recorded (the ‘Visible Ear’). The image stack was resampled at a final resolution of 50 × 50 × 50/100 µm/voxel, registered in custom software and segmented in PhotoShop® 7.0. The segmented image layers were imported into Amira® 3.1 to generate smooth polygonal surface models. Results: The 3-D virtual model presents the structures of the middle, inner and outer ears in their surgically relevant surroundings. It is packaged within a cross-platform freeware, which allows for full rotation, visibility and transparency control, as well as the ability to slice the 3-D model open at any section. The appropriate raw image can be superimposed on the cleavage plane. The model can be downloaded at https://research.meei.harvard.edu/Otopathology/3dmodels/

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