Introduction: Medialization thyroplasty is a procedure indicated for treatment of impaired vocal fold movement. The purpose of this study was to identify variables associated with length of hospital stay (LOS), reoperation, and readmission in patients who underwent a medialization thyroplasty procedure for unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Methods: Adults who underwent unilateral medialization thyroplasty were identified using the 2017 to 2019 NSQIP databases via Current Procedural Terminology code 31591. Data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative labs, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, inpatient status, operative length, and complications. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze effects on total LOS, reoperation, and readmission. Results: 320 patients were identified, with a mean age of 61 years (95% Cl 59.4–62.7) and a female-to-male ratio of 1.1:1. Forty-two (13.1%) patients reported dyspnea as a preoperative symptom. Seven patients (2.2%) reported postoperative complications, 2 with multiple complications: 2 surgical site infections, 2 pneumonias, 2 unplanned intubations, 2 myocardial infarctions, 1 septic shock, 1 cardiac arrest, 1 ventilator use (>48 h), and 1 acute renal failure. Fifty-one (15.9%) were inpatient procedures, with a mean LOS of 1.43 days (95% CI 0.92–1.94). Preoperative functional status and bilirubin were significantly associated with longer LOS (p < 0.001). There were 6 (1.9%) readmissions and 2 (0.6%) reoperations. In univariate analysis, dyspnea varied with reoperation which is important to note in this patient population with glottic insufficiency. Conclusion: Medialization thyroplasty is a procedure with a low risk of mortality. However, preexisting patient comorbidities are associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications and an increased length of stay.

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