Introduction: Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus (SS) varies widely among different ethnic groups. Information regarding the prevalence and significance of SS variants among Hispanic groups is limited. This study aims to describe and analyze pneumatization and septation patterns of the SS in a Hispanic population. Methods: A total of 160 paranasal sinus computed tomographies were reviewed by a head and neck-specialized radiologist and 2 otolaryngologists. Results: The postsellar and sellar types were the most frequent patterns of pneumatization observed, with a prevalence of 52.5 and 40%, respectively. Accessory septations were present in 59.4% of the patients. Septa were inserting over the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 43.8% and over the optic nerve in 17.5% of the population. No significant association (p > 0.05) was observed when comparing the different accessory septation patterns among the types of the SS. The frequency of septa inserting on the ICA was significantly higher in postsellar types (p < 0.001). Pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process, pterygoid processes, and greater wing was present in 20, 17.5, and 45.9% of the sinuses, respectively. Onodi cells were encountered in 40% of the sinuses. There were no significant differences in any of the pneumatization and septation variables when compared by gender and age (p > 0.05). Discussion/Conclusion: Differences regarding anatomical variants and septations of the SS were observed in our study when compared with findings reported in other ethnic groups. Preoperative assessment of the anatomical variants of the SS in Mexican patients is imperative to select the most optimal surgical approach and prevent iatrogenic injuries to related neurovascular structures.

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