Objectives: The optimal surgical approach to treat recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) infiltration by differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains a subject of debate. This study explored the feasibility and efficiency of immediate ansa cervicalis nerve (ACN)-to-RLN anastomosis for the management of RLN infiltration by DTC. Material and Methods: Fifty-three patients who underwent immediate ACN-to-RLN anastomosis during DTC extirpation were enrolled in the present study. Thirty-seven cases presented with unilateral vocal cord paralysis before the operation (Group A), and another 16 patients presented with normal vocal cord mobility preoperatively (Group B). Multidimensional assessments, videostroboscopy, voice assessment, and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: All videostroboscopy, voice assessment and LEMG parameters in Group A deteriorated 1 month after the operation and improved 1 year after the operation compared with preoperative data. In Group B, all parameters 1 year after the operation improved significantly compared with the corresponding parameters 1 month after the operation. LEMG in Group A and B provided substantial evidence for the maturation of neural regeneration from ACN and demonstrated that the laryngeal muscles were reinnervated successfully by this procedure. Conclusions: If the RLN is infiltrated by DTC, immediate ACN-to-RLN anastomosis during complete excision of DTC could restore satisfactory phonatory function and does not compromise oncological radicality.

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