Developments in surgical technique and, more importantly, the use of increasingly sophisticated biocompatible prostheses have meant that good results can be achieved for otosclerosis sufferers in terms of restored hearing and very little postsurgical discomfort. We set out to assess whether the diameter of the prostheses used for stapedotomy (platinum piston/polytetrafluoroethylene, i.e. Teflon) has any effect on surgical outcome. Two groups of otosclerotic patients were selected, and these underwent stapedotomy surgery during the second phase of the disease. A piston-Teflon type prosthesis was used, 5.50 mm in terms of length but of different diameters (group A: 0.4 mm; group B: 0.6 mm). All the patients underwent the same pure-tone audiometry test before surgery, and then at 1 week and 1 month after surgery, to assess function. We compared air conduction after surgery with bone conduction before surgery. The data collected was analysed using the χ2 (p < 0.05) test. This analysis showed that the results obtained with a 0.4-mm prosthesis or a 0.6-mm prosthesis are almost identical. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of hearing results when comparing either average tonal threshold or when analysing audiometric data frequency by frequency. It can be concluded, therefore, that in stapedotomy surgery, functional recovery is not affected by the diameter of the prosthesis used. A smaller diameter prosthesis is, however, the one of choice when the facial nerve is prominent or the oval window particularly narrow.

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