A case of primary branchiogenic carcinoma in a 55-year-old man is presented. The following criteria for the diagnosis of primary carcinoma arising in a branchial cyst should be fulfilled. Firstly, the anatomy and histology of the cyst should point to a branchiogenic origin and the lymphoid tissue on the cyst wall should be of the tonsillar type. Secondly, no other tumor should be found in the upper respiratory tract or elsewhere. The number of reported cases of primary branchiogenic carcinoma are not great and the diagnosis in many cases denied. Following the criteria above the report of a case, however, seems to serve a useful purpose.