About the Journal
Aims and ScopeOphthalmic Research features original research and reviews reporting on translational and clinical studies in the field of ophthalmology and vision research. The journal emphasizes hypothesis-based clinical and laboratory research with statistically valid results that clearly advance the fields of ophthalmic and vision research. It also provides a record of international clinical research for both researchers and clinicians in ophthalmology. The transfer of information from fundamental research to clinical research and clinical practice is particularly welcome. The journal is affiliated with the European Vision Institute Clinical Research Network, European Vision Institute, European School for Advanced Studies in Ophthalmology, and the World Society of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.
- Lens and Cataract
- Inflammatory Eye Disease
- Ocular Oncology
- Neuro-Ophthalmology, Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology
- Ophthalmic Imaging
- Ophthalmic Surgery
- Ophthalmic Genetics
- Cell Biology of Ophthalmic Disease
- Translational Ophthalmic Research
- Epidemiology of Ophthalmic Diseases
- Ocular Plastics
Research Articles report on primary research. They must describe significant and
original observations. Consideration for publication is based on the article’s originality, novelty, and
scientific soundness, and the appropriateness of its analysis.
Research Articles are reports of original work. Authors are asked to follow the EQUATOR Network for Research Articles.
Prior approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or an Ethics Review Committee is required for all investigations involving human subjects.
Research Article (DOCX, 39 KB)
Ophthalmic Research does not accept submission of manuscripts based on Mendelian randomization.
Review Articles are considered reviews of research or summary articles. They are state-of-the-art papers covering a current topic by experts in the field. They should give evidence on and provide answers to a well-defined aspect or question in a particular area. Review Articles must include a critical discussion of the reported data and give a clear conclusion with potential impacts on the standard of care.
A downloadable template is available below.
Review Article (DOCX, 32 KB)
Review articles may be up to up to 30 manuscript pages.
Systematic Reviews are literature reviews focused on a research question that synthesizes all high-quality research evidence relevant to that question. Systematic Reviews should be presented in the Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion format. The subject must be clearly defined. The objective of a Systematic Review should be to arrive at an evidence-based conclusion. The Methods section should give a clear indication of the literature search strategy, data extraction procedure, grading of evidence, and kind of analysis used. We strongly encourage authors to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.
A downloadable template is available below.
Systematic Review (DOCX, 37 KB)
Systematic reviews may be up to up to 30 manuscript pages.
Brief Reports are short and/or rapid announcements of research results. They must contain data derived from cutting-edge research and be of potential interest to a large proportion of the readership. They are independent, concise reports representing a significant contribution to the field. Such communications should represent complete, original studies and should be arranged in the same way as full-length manuscripts with subheadings.
A downloadable template is available below.
Brief Report (DOCX, 36 KB)
Contact InformationShould you have any problems with your submission, please contact the editorial office:
Editorial Office 'Ophthalmic Research'
S. Karger AG
CH–4009 Basel (Switzerland)
Editorial and Journal Policies
Only papers written in English are considered. The articles should be comprehensible to a reader who is
fluent in English and should be edited prior to submission to ensure that standard English grammar and usage
are observed. Use of a professional language editing service prior to submission can help avoid delays with the review
All manuscripts are subject to editorial review. When preparing a manuscript, it is important to review the editorial policies. For full details, please visit the Publication Ethics and Editorial Policies page.
The presentation of manuscripts should follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Karger Publishers is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Karger journals aim to adhere to the COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines.
All articles in this journal are Open Access and meet the requirements of funding bodies and academic institutions. By default, articles are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license. Other licenses are available on request if required by funding bodies. More information about Creative Commons licensing options is available on the Karger website.
Please contact Karger’s Open Access team at email@example.com with questions regarding your funding body.
For more information refer to Open Access.
The copyright of the article is retained by the authors. The authors grant S. Karger AG, Basel, an exclusive unlimited license to publish the article under a Creative Commons license and identify S. Karger AG as the original publisher. By submitting an article for publication, the authors agree to its publication under the applicable Creative Commons license and to the terms and conditions of the Publisher’s Licensing Agreement.
Karger recommends the use of original images and materials whenever possible. If a submitted manuscript contains third-party copyright material(s), it is the authors’ sole responsibility to obtain permission from the relevant copyright holder for reusing the material(s), including any associated licensing fee. The copyright and usage information needs to be checked carefully to avoid copyright infringement. The author(s) is and will remain personally liable for any copyright infringements.
Most publishers offer a quick and easy way to clear permissions for their content via the built-in website application RightsLink or via https://www.copyright.com/get-permissions/. Another widely used licensing tool is PLSClear. Please check the publishers’ websites for the available options and user instructions.
The authors agree that their name, affiliation with their institution and contact details will be available to third parties after the article has been published. Those third parties may be placed within or outside of the European Economic Area.
All submitted manuscripts must contain a statements section after the main body of the text, but before the reference list.
Statement of Ethics
Published research must comply with internationally-accepted standards for research practice and reporting. Manuscripts may be rejected if the editors believe that the research has not been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework or if authors have misrepresented the ethics declarations. Concerns raised after publication may lead to a correction, retraction, or expression of concern in line with COPE guidelines.
Studies involving human subjects (including research on identifiable human material and data) must have been performed with the approval of an appropriate ethics committee and with appropriate participants’ informed consent in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration.
In the manuscript, authors should specify the name of the ethics committee or other relevant authority who approved the study protocol and provide the decision reference number. If ethics approval was not required, or if the study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript, including the reason for the exemption and the name of the ethics committee that made that decision.
For all research involving human subjects, written informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent/legal guardian where appropriate) and a statement detailing this should appear in the manuscript. For studies involving vulnerable participants or participants at risk of potential coercion, detailed information regarding the steps taken to ensure informed consent must be provided. If consent was not obtained, please specify why and whether this was approved by the ethics committee.
Research involving human embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells or induced pluripotent stem cells should comply with the ISSCR 'Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research' or an equivalent set of guidelines or applicable regulations.
Case Reports: Manuscripts reporting a case report must include a statement detailing that written informed consent for publication was obtained and from whom (e.g. “Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images.”). If the patient has died, consent for publication must be obtained from their next of kin. If the patient described in the case report is a minor or vulnerable, then consent for publication must be obtained from the parent/legal guardian. The completed consent form must be made available to the Editor if requested, and will be treated confidentially.
Please note if authors are submitting to a journal with a double blind peer review policy, the Author Contributions statement should be anonymized where appropriate.
PlagiarismPlagiarism, whether intentional or not, is not tolerated in Karger’s journals. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, copying or reusing text, ideas, images or data from other sources without clear attribution, and goes against the principle of academic publishing. Karger may subject any manuscripts to a plagiarism-detection software ( Crossref Similarity Check, powered by iThenticate) and if the software raises any concerns, there will be a follow-up investigation in line with COPE guidelines. At any stage of peer-review, publication, or post-publication, if plagiarism is detected the manuscript may be rejected, corrected or retracted, as appropriate, and we reserve the right to inform the authors' institutions about any plagiarism detected. We expect that our editors and reviewers will inform the journal about any concerns related to plagiarism.
Accepted papers are published online in the unedited, original manuscript version within a few days of acceptance, subject to the authors accepting and confirming applicable conditions of publication, including publication charges. The Early View version will be replaced by the version of record once available.
Peer Review Policy
All Karger journals employ a rigorous peer-review process to confirm the validity and ensure scientific accuracy of published articles. Independent researchers with relevant expertise assess submitted manuscripts to help journal editors determine whether a manuscript should be published in their journal.
Peer Review Type
Ophthalmic Research uses a single-blind peer review system where reviewers know the names of the authors, but the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript.
Peer Review Process
The Editor-in-Chief and the international Editorial Board ensure a thorough and fair peer-review process with the highest scientific publishing standards. The editorial office performs preliminary checks on submitted manuscripts to ensure compliance with submission guidelines, editorial policies and ethical standards. After completion of internal checks, each submission is assessed by the Editor-in-Chief (and/or Managing Editor) who decides whether to proceed with peer review and may assign a suitable handling Editor (Associate Editor, Editorial Board Member or Guest Editor). Handling Editors guide the peer-review process for manuscripts within their areas of expertise with the help of reviewers who are well qualified and up-to-date on the subject matter and/or methodology. All articles, except for Editorials and some Correspondence articles, are externally peer reviewed, typically by at least two individuals with expertise in the manuscript content area and/or research methods, before a final decision is made about acceptance for publication. If an Editor, Editorial Board Member, or employee submits a manuscript, it is assigned to an independent Editor who will handle the peer review, and details of the review process, beyond the anonymized review and decision, are not accessible to the Editor, Editorial Board Member, or employee. All Editors, reviewers and authors shall adhere to Karger’s editorial policies and best practices in line with COPE Core Practices to maintain high standards of peer-review.
Authors may suggest reviewers, who must have a recent publication record in the area of the submission, must not have published with the authors in recent years, and must not be from the same institution as the authors. Whether or not to consider these reviewers is at the Editor's discretion, and in line with Karger’s Editorial policy. Where possible, institutional email addresses or information which will facilitate verifying the identity of the reviewer should be provided.
Appeals and Complaints
Any appeal on a decision or complaint during peer-review, or post-publication, must be submitted in writing to the corresponding Karger’s editorial office (see “Journal Contact”). All cases will be handled in line with COPE guidelines.
Availability of materials
The Methods section of the article must contain sufficient information to allow a reader to replicate the study. Karger encourages authors to use protocols.io as an open access repository for their detailed methodology. For protocols registered in protocols.io, please cite this record in your methods section and include the record DOI in the references. Karger supports the inclusion of Research Resource Identifiers in the methods section, for further information please see the Resource Identification Portal. Supplier and catalogue numbers should be included for any chemical and reagents.
Where authors include a representative image of an experimental group or outcome it is expected that no image enhancements or adjustments are applied to that image. Where necessary for clarity of interpretation, for example, image cropping or brightness adjustment, this should be applied to the whole image, be detailed in the Methods section of the article and the original images must be uploaded as supplementary material.
Karger recommends following The SAMPL Guidelines when reporting statistical analyses. Sample size must be reported for each study in the methods section tables and Figure legends. Where statistical testing for the significance of an effect is carried out, a dedicated section for statistical methodology must be included in the Methods. This section should provide sufficient information that would allow, with access to the full data set, reproduction of the article's results. The choice of statistical tests and any post-hoc tests must be justified in this section. The threshold for significance, alpha, should be defined here as well as how multiple comparisons are adjusted for, where applicable. When reporting the results of statistical tests it is not sufficient to only report the p-value. For example, for a Student’s t-test, it is necessary to report the degrees of freedom, t-statistic as well as the exact p-value.
Materials Design Analysis Reporting Framework
Karger Publishers endorses the Materials Design Analysis Reporting (MDAR) Framework for minimum reporting standards in the life sciences and encourages authors to consider all aspects of the MDAR Framework relevant to their study when submitting a manuscript. Authors are encouraged to submit a completed MDAR Checklist with their manuscripts.
MisconductKarger takes seriously all allegations of potential misconduct and will follow relevant COPE Guidelines. Concerns regarding a published article should be raised to the Research Integrity and Publication Ethics Manager at publication.ethics[at]karger.com. All efforts will be made to resolve concerns raised about a published article without undue delay and an Erratum or Retraction will be issued, where necessary. An Expression of Concern may be published to inform readers of ongoing matters in line with COPE guidance. In cases of suspected research or publication misconduct, it may be necessary for the Editor or Publisher to contact and share submission details with third parties including authors’ institutions and ethics committees in line with COPE Guidelines. Advice may also be sought directly from COPE.
The preferred word processing program for manuscripts is Microsoft Word. Page and line numbering should be activated, and the level of subheadings should be indicated clearly.
Footnotes should be avoided. When essential, they should be numbered consecutively and appear at the foot of the appropriate page.
Abbreviations (with the exception of those clearly well established in the field) should be explained when they are first used both in the abstract and in the main text.
Units of measurement should be expressed in SI units wherever possible.
Generic names of drugs (first letter: lowercase) should be used whenever possible. Registered trade names (first letter: uppercase) should be marked with the superscript registration symbol ® or ™ when they are first mentioned.
The manuscript text, tables and illustrations must be submitted in separate files.
For further technical specifications, including those regarding tables, figures, and illustrations, please refer to the Karger website.
Further Formatting Instructions
Plain Language Summary Template (DOCX, 20.59 KB)
Plain Language Summary
A plain language summary may be submitted for Research Articles and Review Articles. The summary should not exceed 250 words and be written in plain English avoiding the use of technical language. If a technical term must be used, then authors must explain it the first time that it is used. The summary must be distinct from the abstract and provide readers with an easy-to-understand description of the manuscript. Authors should avoid the use of personal opinions and/or speculation on the results of the manuscript. No page charges will be incurred by the inclusion of the plain language summary. Use neither bibliographic references nor references to figures or tables in the summary.
The first page should contain a short and concise title plus a running head of no more than 80 characters. Abbreviations should be avoided.
Below the title, list all the authors’ names as outlined in the article sample, which can be downloaded under Article Types. Each listed author must have an affiliation, which comprises the department, university, or organization and its location, city, state/province (if applicable), and country.
Place the full postal address of the corresponding author at the bottom of the first page, including at least one telephone number and e-mail address.
Keywords relevant to the article should be listed below the corresponding author information.
BodyPlease refer to the Article Types section of the Guidelines for Authors for information on the relevant article structure, including maximum word counts and downloadable samples.
Online Supplementary MaterialOnline Supplementary Material may be used to enhance a publication and increase its visibility on the Web. Supplementary files (directly relevant but not essential to the conclusions of the paper) will undergo editorial review and should be submitted in a separate file with the original manuscript and with all subsequent submissions. The Editor(s) reserve(s) the right to limit the scope and length of supplementary material. Supplementary material must meet production quality standards for publication without the need for any modification or editing. For ease of reader access, we strongly recommend that files be less than 10 MB. Authors wishing to associate larger amounts of supplementary material with their article should deposit their data in an appropriate public data repository. Figures must have legends and tables require headings. All files must be named clearly. Acceptable files and formats are Word or PDF files, Excel spreadsheets (if the data cannot be converted properly into a PDF file), and multimedia files (MPEG, AVI, or QuickTime formats). All supplementary material should be referred to in the main text. A DOI number will be assigned to supplementary material, and it will be hosted online at https://karger.figshare.com under a CC BY license.
References in the text should be identified sequentially using Arabic numerals [in square brackets].
The reference list should include only those publications which are cited in the text, arranged numerically in the order in which they are cited. Please number the reference list as shown below (i.e., without using full stops, brackets, etc.). The authors’ surnames should be followed by their initials with no punctuation other than a comma to separate individual authors. A maximum of 6 authors should be listed (followed by “et al.” if there are more than 6 authors). Material submitted for publication but not yet accepted should be referred to as “unpublished data” and should not be included in the reference list. Other pre-published or related materials with a DOI, e.g. preprint manuscripts, datasets, and code, may be included. More information on good referencing practice, as well as further examples, can be found in National Library of Medicine Style Guide for Authors.
Reference Management Software
If you are using reference management software, we recommend using the Vancouver Referencing Style, which is also known as ‘Non-superscripted Number’ and adjusting to have the numbers in square brackets in the main text.
Articles published in journals: 1 Sawant KV, Xu R, Cox R, Hawkins H, Sbrana E, Kolli D, et al. Chemokine CXCL1-mediated neutrophil trafficking in the lung: role of CXCR2 activation. J Innate Immun. 2015;6(7):647–58. (Journal names should be abbreviated according to the Index Medicus.)
Articles published only with DOI number: 2 Chen C, Hu Z. ApoE polymorphisms and the risk of different subtypes of stroke in the Chinese population: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Cerebrovasc Dis. DOI: 10.1159/000442678.
Monographs: 3 Matthews DE, Farewell VT. Using and understanding medical statistics. 5th ed, revised. Basel: Karger; 2015.
Edited Books: 4 Cohen SR, Gardner TW. Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. In: Nguyen QD, Rodrigues EB, Farah ME, Mieler WF, Do DV, editors. Retinal pharmacotherapeutics. Dev Ophthalmol. Basel: Karger; 2016. Vol. 55; p. 137–46.
Websites: 5 Karger Publishers [Internet]. Basel: Transforming Vesalius: The 16th-Century Scientific Revolution Brought to Life for the 21st Century [cited 2013 Feb 4]. Available from: https://www.vesaliusfabrica.com/en/new-fabrica.html.
Karger Publishers offer a range of services to assist authors with the preparation of their manuscript, including discounts for language editing services offered by third parties.
More information is available on the Author Resources section of the Karger homepage.
When submitting a manuscript, authors can add their ORCID number to their Karger account to ensure that their paper is accredited to them correctly.
Cost of Publication
Page Charges/Article Processing Charges
Karger has established Transformative Agreements with many consortia and institutions that include full or partial coverage of the Article Processing Charges (APCs) and/or the Author’s Choice Open Access publication fees. Authors affiliated with those institutions can publish Open Access in all Karger journals and comply with Open Access mandates without incurring any additional costs or with reduced APCs. Find out here whether your Open Access charges are covered by an agreement.
Please note that ‘Brief Reports’ will be subject to an Article Processing Charge (APC) of CHF 1300.00/ USD 1460.00/ EUR 1250.00.
Online Supplementary MaterialWe strongly encourage authors to make all the datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript are based available. Online supplementary material is hosted for free with a published article. For ease of reader access, we strongly recommend that files be less than 10 MB. Authors wishing to associate larger amounts of supplementary material with their article should deposit their data in an appropriate public data repository.
Copyediting and ProofsManuscripts accepted for publication by Karger Publishers will undergo basic proofreading to check for obvious spelling and grammar mistakes. If you would prefer a more in-depth language editing service to improve clarity and style, please consult a service provider prior to submission. Please note that the use of a language editing service before submission is not a requirement for publication in the journal and does not guarantee that the manuscript will be considered for peer review or accepted.
Karger Publishers’ house style is based on internationally recognized standard manuals, including The Chicago Manual of Style.
An e-mail containing a link to download the PDF proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. The authors should check the PDF document and respond to any questions that have been raised during proofreading within 48 hours.
Alterations made to proofs, other than the correction of errors introduced by the Publisher, are charged to the authors and may require editorial approval.
Please note that the revised proofs are not sent to the authors prior to typesetting and online publication unless there are exceptional circumstances. The article layout will be created according to the Karger standard.
DOI NumberA DOI number will be available as a unique identifier on the title page of each article. DOIs are useful for identifying and citing articles published online without volume or issue information (for more information, see www.doi.org).
Online First PublicationAll articles are published electronically ahead of print with full citation details, including DOI, volume, and page numbers. The articles become available immediately after the authors’ approval to print.
Licenses and Copyright
Articles published in Ophthalmic Research are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, unless otherwise agreed with Karger Publishers. When sharing or reusing any article, attribution must be given to the original source, using the statement "The final, published version of this article is available at http://karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number]" (e.g., http://karger.com/?doi=10.1159/000365070). Reuse for commercial purposes requires permission from the publisher.
More information is available on the Karger website.
The copyright of the article is retained by the authors. The authors grant S. Karger AG, Basel, an
exclusive unlimited license to publish the article under a Creative Commons license and identify S. Karger
AG as the original publisher. Submission of a manuscript for publication implies the authors’ consent to
publication under the applicable Creative Commons license and the terms and conditions of the Publisher’s
Please note that metadata – essentially, data tags about article information such as authors and keywords that helps make articles discoverable by, for example, search engines – is governed by a separate policy. Refer to the FAQ on our Open Access web pages for details.
Archiving and Self-Archiving
All articles are archived in Portico. Articles may also be archived in PubMed Central if the journal is indexed there. Karger permits authors of Open Access articles to post the Version of Record (VOR) of their articles in Open Access repositories or on other websites. Preprints may be shared without restriction. Re-posted Open Access articles must follow the terms of the relevant Creative Commons license.
To ensure citations are credited to the Version of Record, Karger encourages authors to link to the published article on karger.com and include the following statement: "The Version of Record of this article is available at http://karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number](e.g. http://karger.com/?doi=10.1159/000365070)."
Manuscripts to be archived in PubMed Central due to NIH funding requirements will be submitted by Karger on
the authors’ behalf, as outlined under Funding Organizations.
Karger policies on Open Access, licensing and self-archiving can also be found at Sherpa Romeo.
Funding OrganizationsIf the authors are affiliated with an organization that has an Open Access agreement with Karger, the authors are prompted during submission to select from a list of these organizations. By choosing one of the listed organizations, eligibility can then be assessed.
The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandates
that the Author's Accepted Manuscript must be archived in its digital repository PubMed Central (PMC)
within 12 months of the official publication date. As a service to authors, Karger Publishers submits
the Version of Record of Open Access NIH-funded papers to PMC upon publication.
To facilitate compliance with Coalition S/Plan S Open Access mandates, Karger publishes Plan S-funded Open Access articles with a CC BY license. Some Coalition S funders, such as Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and FWF, designate PMC as the repository in which to archive articles. Where PMC is the designated repository, Karger will deposit the Version of Record on the author’s behalf with the CC BY license. Authors should refer to their funders’ policies for details. Authors should check their funders’ requirements about how to declare their funding and any associated mandates within their manuscript.
Karger publishes some journals under the Transformative Journals model, compliant with Plan S. Find more information about Transformative Journals on the Karger website.
Karger Publishers also complies with other funders’ requirements for submission to PMC. Authors should inform Karger about their grant providers during submission and include information on their grants in the Funding Sources section of their papers.
More information on funding sources can be found on the Karger website.
Errata and Retractions
Karger is committed to maintaining the accuracy and integrity of the scientific record. Retractions will be issued where required in accordance with COPE guidelines. Errors in an article that affect the content of the article, such as figures or results, or the article metadata, such as the author list, will be corrected through the publication of an Erratum. Please note that the corrections of other errors introduced by authors and missed during the final manuscript proofing stage may be declined. Authors should contact us to report errors in their articles. Please state journal name, volume, issue and page numbers, the DOI number if the article has not yet been printed, as well as article title and the nature of the error.
Manuscripts should be submitted online via the Ophthalmic Research submission and peer review system by the manuscript’s corresponding author. The corresponding (submitting) author will automatically be the contact person for the manuscript for the peer review and production process. For fee payment and license signing, the contact author will be the first listed corresponding author.
The corresponding (submitting) author is solely responsible for managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors and acts on behalf of all listed authors. This ensures that all correspondence reaches a unique contact and thereby secures swift communication in particular throughout the submission, peer review and production process. Articles can be published with more than one corresponding author (usually limited to three), but only the submitting author can be accommodated during the submission, peer review and production process.
The corresponding (submitting) author’s specific responsibilities include:
- Ensuring all the listed authors have approved the manuscript submission to the journal and agreed to all of the content including the author list, including the Submission Declaration
- Handling the revision(s) and re-submission(s) of the manuscript until acceptance
- After acceptance, manuscript proof reading and approving the final proof
- Acting as the point of contact for queries about the published article. It is their responsibility to inform all co-authors of any matters arising in relation to the published article including questions relating to publication ethics, availability of data, materials, etc.
Where there are multiple corresponding authors, the first listed corresponding author’s specific responsibilities include:
- Upon acceptance, ensuring that all listed authors agree to the license agreement
- Arranging for payment of Page Charges/Article Processing Charges where required. The affiliation of the corresponding author will be used to determine eligibility for discounted or waived charges including discounted or waived APCs under read and publish/offsetting/OA agreements
Please note that the author names entered into the manuscript submission and peer review system should be identical to the information presented on the title page of the manuscript, including the sequence of authorship. The author names submitted should reflect the official publication names. It is the submitting (corresponding) author’s responsibility to ensure the accuracy of all content in the proof, including the names of co-authors, addresses and affiliations.
Before submission, please read the Submission Guidelines in full for specific requirements for manuscript preparation.
A brief cover letter outlining how your study contributes to the current scientific literature and how it fits the aims and scope of the Journal should be provided. If your submission is part of a special issue of the journal, please refer to the specific name of the special issue in your cover letter and specify who invited the submission where appropriate.
Submission DeclarationThe submitting author will submit, on behalf of all authors, their manuscript for potential publication after full peer-review. All co-authors will confirm that the submitting author has authority to act on their behalf via the verification link sent out to all authors upon completion of the submission. Please refer to the Submission Declaration PDF for details.
Submission Declaration (PDF, 65.62 KB)