Background/Aims: Senescent Ccl2–/– mice develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are associated with AMD. Methods: We generated Ccl2–/–/Cx3cr1–/– [double-knockout (DKO)] mice and evaluated the eyes using fundoscopy routine histology, immunochemistry, biochemistry and proteomics. Results: At 6 weeks old, all DKO mice developed AMD-like retinal lesions such as abnormal retinal pigment epithelium cells, drusen, photoreceptor atrophy and choroidal neovascularization, which progressed with age and reversed with high omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid diet. N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a major lipofuscin fluorophore, illustrated by an emission peak at ∼600 nm, was significantly higher in DKO retinal pigment epithelium. Decreased ERp29 was found in the retina of DKO mice. Conclusion: A broad spectrum of AMD pathologies with early onset and high penetrance in these mice implicate certain chemokines, A2E and endoplasmic reticulum proteins in AMD pathogenesis.

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