Objective: To determine the vascular density of the anterior segment (AS) of the eye from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images and slit-lamp photographs. Methods: A swept-source OCTA (Plex Elite 9000; Carl Zeiss) device modified with a +10-diopter lens was used to record the vasculature of the AS. Twenty eyes, including 4 eyes of 4 healthy subjects and 16 eyes of 12 patients scheduled for cataract surgery or combined vitrectomy and cataract surgery, were studied. The slit-lamp photographs of the AS were acquired concurrently with the AS-OCTA images. The vascular density was measured preoperatively and postoperatively in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior quadrants after binarization with ImageJ software. Results: Acceptable AS-OCTA images were obtained of 65% (superior), 80% (nasal), 70% (inferior), and 80% (temporal) of the eyes. The percentage of acceptable images was significantly lower in the superior quadrant among the AS-OCTA images than among the AS photographs (100%; p = 0.004). The vascular density determined by AS-OCTA was higher than that determined in the AS photographs in all quadrants (p = 0.011 to <0.001). The AS-OCTA B-mode images showed that vascular flow was identified mainly between the conjunctiva and sclera but not in the ciliary body. The vascular density increased significantly after cataract surgery in the superior quadrant, which was significantly correlated with the location of the surgical incision (p = 0.03). Conclusion: AS-OCTA can obtain images with higher vascular density of the conjunctiva and sclera than slit-lamp photographs, and AS-OCTA images can show a postoperative increase in vascular density.