Aim: Evidence of the relationship between the polymorphism of the complement factor H (CFH) gene at position 402 (Y402H) and the response to the treatment of wet AMD is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the functional and morphological 1-year evolution of patients with exudative AMD treated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs with the CFH Y402H polymorphism in the Brazilian population. Methods: Forty-six patients treated for wet AMD with bevacizumab or ranibizumab in a pro re nata regimen were included. The evolution of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT), and the number of injections over 1 year of follow-up were correlated with CFH genotypes. Results: The analysis of variance for the difference between the BCVA denoted as logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) values showed an improvement at 1 year when compared to baseline (p = 0.039). Profile contrast analysis showed that this difference was significant only in the group without the C allele (p = 0.049), without significance in patients presenting with the risk allele (p = 0.241). CRT showed a mean reduction at 1 year compared to baseline (p < 0.001). Significant differences in the profile contrast test were found in the group without the C allele (p < 0.001) and in patients with the risk allele (p = 0.002). No difference was found in the number of injections among the different groups (p = 0.787). Conclusions: The presence of the risk allele of the Y402H polymorphism in the CFH gene was related to a less favorable evolution over 1 year in this sample of the Brazilian population with exudative AMD who were being treated with anti-VEGF drugs. In agreement with similar previous studies, this study concludes that the CFH risk genotypes may affect the disease response to treatment.

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