Background: To evaluate the effect of Ozurdex® on intraocular pressure in patients with macular edema alone (group 1) or associated with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (group 2). Methods: A clinical, retrospective, observational, comparative study included 92 eyes with macular edema treated with a single injection of Ozurdex®; 27 eyes were previously diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Results: The mean intraocular pressure (group 1 vs. group 2) after injection was 12.1 versus 19.9 mm Hg, (p < 0.05; day 1); 17.5 versus 19.7 mm Hg (p < 0.05; month 1); 18.4 versus 20.9 mm Hg (p < 0.05; month 2); 15 versus 17.4 mm Hg (p < 0.05; month 3); 13.9 versus 16.7 mm Hg (p > 0.05; month 6); 13.8 versus 15.1 mm Hg (p > 0.05; month 9) and 13.1 versus 16.4 mm Hg (p > 0.05; month 12). Thirty eyes (32.6%) showed ocular hypertension (intraocular pressure >21 mm Hg) after the injection: 21.5% of group 1 and 59.3% of group 2. In group 2, 27 eyes (100%) needed medical treatment to reduce intraocular pressure in comparison to 8 patients (12.3%) in group 1 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of Ozurdex® was associated with ocular hypertension in 32.6% of the eyes. Previous glaucoma or ocular hypertension are risk factors for this increase.

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