Aim: This study was done to evaluate the role of pentosidine in predicting the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Patients and Methods: We included 30 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1) and 10 healthy control individuals. A case control study was done. Full ophthalmological examination together with laboratory investigations (blood glucose level, HbA1C and blood pentosidine level corrected to blood total protein values were measured) were done in all subjects included in this study. The level of pentosidine was correlated with the duration of diabetes and the stage of retinopathy. All data were analyzed and reported. Results: Significant elevation of pentosidine was found in patients during the earliest detectable phase of diabetic retinopathy (early nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy) and more elevation at the preproliferative stage of retinopathy, returning to lower levels at the proliferative stage of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Pentosidine can be used as a biochemical marker for early occurrence of diabetic retinopathy and as an alarming factor in the preproliferative stage of diabetic retinopathy, thus helping decrease ocular complications.

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