Background: To compare the long-term anatomical closure rates and visual acuity after vitrectomy for macular hole (MH) surgery with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and with and without indocyanine green (ICG) staining. Methods: A total of 75 eyes of 71 patients with MH that had undergone vitrectomy were retrospectively studied. Group A consisted of 21 eyes that had vitrectomy without ILM peeling, Group B consisted of 38 eyes that had vitrectomy with ILM peeling without the ICG staining, and Group C consisted of 16 eyes that had vitrectomy with ILM peeling with ICG staining. The main outcome measures were the anatomical closure rates and visual acuities at 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. Results: MH were closed in all 75 eyes after the initial surgery. The visual acuity improved significantly (p < 0.0005) at 1 year after surgery and did not change significantly at 2 and 3 years after surgery in the 3 groups. Differences in the mean visual acuity in the 3 groups were not significant at 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. Conclusions: These results suggest that ILM peeling or the use of ICG dye do not significantly affect the MH closure rates and the long-term visual acuities.

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