Purposes: To confirm the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and to investigate the relationship between the level of VEGF in serum and its vitreal level in patients with either disease. Methods: Venous blood and vitreous of 18 patients with PDR, 15 patients with PVR and 20 patients forming a control group were collected during vitrectomy. The VEGF level was quantified by using ELISA methods in either serum or vitreous. Results: The VEGF level in serum and vitreous was similarly high in the case of PDR, but its level was only high in serum in the case of PVR. Discussion: PDR is closely linked with systemic diabetes mellitus whereas PVR is more localized. More selective systemic anti-VEGF medications with reduced side effects are required to treat PDR successfully.

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