Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of conventional scleral buckling (CSB), modified scleral buckling (MSB), and scleral encircling (SE) in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and identify factors influencing the outcomes. Methods: This comparative, retrospective cohort study assigned patients to CSB, MSB, and SE groups. The follow-up was 12 months, and the reattachment rate, complication rate, visual acuity, number of newly discovered tears during surgery, and changes in diopters were compared among the three surgeries. Influential factors on anatomical and functional reattachment were identified. Results: There were no significant differences in the primary reattachment rate, overall complication rate, or best corrected visual acuity at 6 or 12 months among the three groups. The MSB group had a higher number of newly discovered tears during surgery compared with the other two groups. At 12 months of post-surgery, the SE group displayed the greatest change of diopter, whereas the MSB group showed the least change. The surgical approach did not influence the primary reattachment rate. Long-term visual outcomes were influenced by factors including sex, preoperative visual acuity, macular status, and duration of symptoms. Conclusion: MSB is an effective method for treating rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Its advantages include the ability to identify smaller tears and induce minimal changes in diopter.

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