Introduction: Myopic maculopathy is a sight-threatening disease, which causes irreversible vision faults and central vision loss. The purpose of this study is evaluating the risk factors of the myopic maculopathy progression according to the ATN classification system. Methods: Clinic data of 69 high myopia patients aged older than 40 years with a follow-up time of more than 2 years, who underwent fundus photography and OCT examination were retrospectively collected. Fundus changes were evaluated with ATN classification at the first and last follow-up times. The related factors affecting progress including axial length (AL), spherical equivalence (SE), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), disc-foveal distance (DFD), optic disc tilt, and parapapillary atrophy (PPA) were analyzed. Results: This study included 69 high-myopia patients with mean age 54.29 ± 10.41 years. The progression rate of myopic maculopathy (MM) was approximately 25.56%. Elongated DFD (5.37 ± 0.11 mm vs. 4.86 ± 0.37 mm; p < 0.001) and thinner SFCT (138.52 ± 29.38 μm vs. 184.87 ± 48.72 μm; p = 0.008) at baseline were linked with MM progression. In multiple logistic regression analysis, DFD was a substantial hazard risk factor (adjusted OR = 1.672, 95% CI: 1.135–2.498, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, AL and SFCT. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that DFD might serve as a predictor to discriminate the MM progression with a cut-off value of 5.15 mm and a substantial receiver operating characteristic curve area (AUC: 0.794). Compared with the non-progression group, the progression group had older age (p < 0.001), longer AL (p = 0.001), higher optic disc tilt rate (p < 0.001), and higher proportion of pre-existing PPA (p = 0.038) at baseline, the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the ATN classification system, we found that the progression of MM was related to older age, longer AL, high disc tilt, pre-existing PPA, thinner SFCT, and longer DFD. The parameter of DFD was an important factor affecting the progression of MM, which is considered to have a higher probability of progression when the length is beyond 5.15 mm.

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