Introduction: Submacular hemorrhage (SMH) is a vision-threatening complication of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The exact treatment scheme is not established yet. The aim of the current study was to describe surgical results and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) patterns after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) + subretinal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) + anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intravitreal tPA + anti-VEGF + sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tamponade and to compare them to intravitreal tPA + anti-VEGF + SF6 in the treatment of SMH in the course of AMD. Materials and Methods: We performed FAF imaging in patients with a previous SMH in the course of AMD with a duration of <60 days treated with vitrectomy with subretinal anti-VEGF and tPA and intravitreal anti-VEGF, tPA, and SF6 administration (group 1) or intravitreal tPA + anti-VEGF + SF6 (group 2). In all eyes, a throughout ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were done for diagnosis. SD-OCT was performed monthly during treatment. Results: Three FAF patterns were observed in both groups. Pattern one (normal autofluorescence) was observed in 5/18 in group one and 5/21 group two. Pattern two was observed in 6/18 in group one and 7/21 in group two. Pattern three was noted in 7/18 in group one and 5/21 in group two. Improvement in visual acuity was statistically significant for both groups: 0.01 Snellen (2.0 logMAR) to 0.11 Snellen (0.96 logMAR) in group one (p = 0.019) and 0.11 Snellen (0.96 logMAR) to 0.33 Snellen (0.48 logMAR) in group two (p = 0.0007). Central retinal thickness also decreased with statistical significance for both groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: FAF patterns did not depend on the treatment used, but solely on the duration of SMH before treatment. SMH if not treated prompt enough might cause long-standing photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium defect, which is represented by hypo- and hyperautofluorescence. Performing a subretinal injection of tPA and anti-VEGF does not cause any defects associated with the injection site. That might be associated with previous local internal limiting membrane peeling, which reduces the injection pressure. Not only prompt treatment of SMH but also further continuation of anti-VEGF treatment is mandatory to maintain vision.

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