Purpose: To investigate pH, ions, osmolarity and precipitation of indocyanine green (ICG), as well as the profile of ICG decomposition products (DPs) after laser exposure and the interaction with quenchers. Methods: ICG was diluted in water, 5% glucose (GL) or balanced salt solution (BSS) to achieve concentrations of 2.5, 1, 0.25 and 0.1 mg/ml. Osmolarity, pH and precipitation were analyzed immediately and after 24 h. Precipitation analyses were done with a scanning electron microscope. Anion and iodate analyses of ICG and infracyanine green (IfCG) were performed by capillary zone electrophoresis. With regard to DPs, 0.5 mg/ml of ICG was assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after 810-nm laser irradiation. DP profiles were evaluated with ICG dilution in quenchers (Trolox, histidine and DABCO) in 3 concentrations (0.1, 1 and 10 M). Results: BSS promoted iso-osmotic ICG solutions of 208 mOsm (147-266) compared to GL with 177 mOsm. BSS solutions had a higher physiological pH of 7.2 compared with the GL one of 6.55. ICG precipitated more when diluted with BSS (5.95 mg); in contrast, GL showed less precipitate (3.6 mg). IfCG has no iodine derivates and other ICGs have an average 4.6% of iodate derivates. From HPLC analysis, 5 DPs were observed. The rate of DPs was higher when BSS was used (p < 0.05). Five DPs have been generated with ICG, and they may be altered with the quenchers DABCO, histidine and Trolox. Conclusions: BSS dilution induces more precipitation and DPs. ICG dilution in any solvent induces DPs. Quencher use reduces the amount of toxic DPs.

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