As epiretinal membranes (ERMs), the internal limiting membrane (ILM) and the vitreous cortex are essentially transparent tissues, or translucent structures, nontraumatic removal may be challenging in various types of macular surgery. Vital dyes stain these thin tissues, thus allowing for better visualization of these structures during vitrectomy and selective ‘membrane peeling' from the underlying retina. To avoid swirling of the dye within the fluid-filled vitreous cavity, and to better target the dye onto the macula, a fluid-air exchange is commonly performed. However, this may jeopardize visualization of the macula during peeling due to clouding of the posterior lens capsule, and may lead to postoperative visual field defects. Recently, a new dye solution for staining the ERM and ILM simultaneously has been developed that circumvents the need for fluid-air exchange, i.e. MembraneBlue-Dual™. This paper will focus on the hydrodynamics and biocompatibility of this ‘heavy' dual dye and its efficacy for staining of the ILM and/or ERMs during posterior segment surgery in a multicenter clinical setting.

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