Intraoperative visualization of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), the choice of a point of vantage for lifting an initial flap, the precision with which the ILM is grasped, adhesion between the forceps and the ILM, thickness, stiffness and elasticity of the ILM as well as monitoring of the completeness of ILM removal are all important factors for safety and efficacy of a chromovitrectomy intervention. The understanding of the underlying physical features of the ILM, such as contrast behavior and bioanatomical and biomechanical properties represent, thus, useful prerequisites for successful macular surgery. New analytical tools, such as atomic force microscopy and chromaticity analysis, allow new insights into ILM material characteristics, permitting a systematic approach to refinement of surgical technique.

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