Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population without known glaucoma as measured by means of a noncontact tonometer (NCT). Methods: IOP values of 842 persons, measured by means of a Pulsair 2000 NCT ® (Keeler Instruments, Inc., Broomhall, Pennsylvania) by 5 investigators were evaluated. Three consecutive measurements were taken first on the right eye and then on the left eye in each subject. Topical anesthesia was not used. Results: The distribution of the measured IOP values was significantly different from a normal distribution. The median IOP was 15.0 mm Hg (lower quartile/upper quartile 12.5/17.2). There were no differences in IOP values between male and female subjects or between right and left eyes. There was no correlation between age and IOP values. Ninety percent of the subjects had an IOP within a range of 9–24 mm Hg in both eyes. Among the examined subjects, the IOP was above 24 and 21 mm Hg in 4,6 and 11%, respectively, in at least one eye. The median range of consecutive IOP measurements in one eye was 3 mm Hg (lower quartile/upper quartile 2.0/4.0). The median interocular IOP difference was 1.7 mm Hg (0.7/2.7). The median individual coefficient of variation (CV) values were 10.0% for the right eyes, –10.8% for the left eyes. Among the 5 different examiners, the IOP values, range of 3 consecutive IOP readings in one eye, interocular asymmetry and CV values were statistically comparable. Conclusion: The Pulsair 2000 NCT is very simple to use and its handling is mostly independent of the operator. The results of the present investigation might be of some value for future screening programs.

1.
Quigley HA: Number of people with glaucoma worldwide. Br J Ophthalmol 1996;80:389–393.
2.
American Academy of Ophthalmology: Preferred Practice Patterns. Primary open-angle glaucoma. San Francisco, American Academy of Ophthalmology, 1989, pp 1–27.
3.
Bengtsson B: The prevalence of glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1981;65:46–49.
4.
David R, Zangwill Linda, Stone D, Yassur Y: Epidemiology of intraocular pressure in a population screened for glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1987;71:766–771.
5.
Vernon S, Jones SJ, Henry DJ: Maximizing the sensitive and specificity of non-contact tonometry in glaucoma screening. Eye 1991;5:491–493.
6.
Moseley MJ, Evans NM, Fielder AR: Comparison of a new non-contact tonometer with Goldmann applanation. Eye 1989;3:332–337.
7.
Van Buskirk EM, Cioffi GA: Glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;113:447–452.
8.
Whitacre MM, Stein R: Sources of error with use of Goldmann-type tonometers. Survey Ophthalmol 1993;38:1–30.
9.
Eksioglu Ü, Yalvaç IS, Nurözler A, Karagöz Y, Akgün Ü, Kasim R, Duman S: Pulsair non-kontakt tonometre ile Goldmann applanasyon tonometresinin karsilastirilmasi. Türk Klin Oft Der 1994;4:1:33–35.
10.
Montanes JM, Demmel EG, Perez de Madrid DA: Comparative study of three non-contact tonometers and the Goldmann Tonometer. Ophthalmologica 1994;208:115–118.
11.
Moseley MJ, Thompson JR, Deutsch J, Mission GP, Naylor G, Tan-Yee A, Taylor RH, Fieldeer AR: Comparison of the Keeler Pulsair 2000 non-contact tonometer with Goldmann Applanation. Eye 1993;7:127–130.
12.
Wilson MR, Baker RS, Mohammadi P, Wheeler NC, Lee DA, Scott C: Reproducibility of postural changes in intraocular pressure with the Tono-Pen and Pulsair tonometers. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;116:479–483.
13.
Fisher JH, Watson PG, Spaeth G: A new hand-held tonometer. Eye 1988;2:238–242.
14.
Fisher JH: New tonometer. UK Patent Application 8513108, 23 May 1985.
15.
Sponsel WE, Kaufman PL, Strinden TI, DePaul KL, Bowes HN, Olander KW, Barnebey HS: Evaluation of the Keeler Pulsair non-contact tonometer. Acta Ophthalmologica 1989;67:567–572.
16.
Bonomi L, Baravelli S, Cobbe C, Tomazzoli L: Evaluation of Keeler Pulsair non-contact tonometer: reliability and reproducibility. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1991;229:210–212.
17.
Armstrong TA: Evaluation of the Tono-Pen and the Pulsair Tonometers. Am J Ophthalmol 1990;109:716–720.
18.
Yücel AA, Stürmer J, Gloor B: Vegleichende Tonometrie mit dem Keeler Luft-Impuls Non-Contact Tonometer ‘Pulsair’ und dem Applanationstonometer nach Goldmann. Klin Mbl Augenheilk 1990;197:329–334.
19.
Hollows FC, Graham PA: Intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and glaucoma susepcts in a defined population. Br J Ophthalmol 1996;50:570–586.
20.
Armaly MF: The distribution of applanation pressure. I. Statistical features and effect of age, sex, and family history of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 73:11–18;1965.
21.
Leydhecker W: Glaukom. Ein Handbuch. Zweite Ausgabe. Springer-Verlag. Berlin pp 43, 147–163, 384–405.
22.
Kahn HA, Roy MC: Alternative definitions of open-angle glaucoma. Effect on prevalence and associations in the Framingham Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98:2172–2177.
23.
Leske MC, Connell AMS, Kehoe R: A pilot project of glaucoma in Barbados. Br J Ophthalmol 1989;73:365–369.
24.
Rouhiainen H, Teäsvirta M: Incidence of open-angle glaucoma and screening of the intraocular pressure with a non-contact tonometer. Acta Ophthalmol 1990;68:344–346.
25.
Vernon SA, Henry DJ, Cater L, Jones SJ: Screening for glaucoma in the community by nonophthalmologically trained staff using semiautomated equipment. Eye 1990, 89–97.
26.
Vernon S: Intra-eye pressure range and pulse profiles in normals with the Pulsair non-contact tonometer. Eye 1993;7:134–137.
27.
Banker JKL, Perkins ES, Tsolakis S, Wright JE: Bedford glaucoma survey. Br Med J 1968;1:791–796.
28.
Vernon S, Jones SJ: Intraocular pressure asymmetry in a population tested with the Pulsair noncontact tonometer. Eye 1991;5:674–677.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.