Work carried out by Cuppers has proved that squint deviations are related to the innervational and viscoelastic impairments of the ocular muscles, whose association and degree vary according to each case. The passive duction test is always positive in retraction syndromes, but it is not precise enough to detect most of the viscoelastic impairments of functional squints. The authors have noted important and frequent anomalies of muscle stretching; they describe the operative features of a muscle elongation test in various types of strabismic deviations.

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