The various possibilities of treating arterial retinal occlusions are reviewed. Although thrombolysis is regarded today as the most dependable therapeutic method it has the most contraindications and carries the highest risk. There are less contraindications to anticoagulative treatment. The results are, however, not as good as with thrombolysis. The action of vasodilators is only positive if an intensive general cardiovascular treatment also takes place. Attempts to influence the viscosity of blood via xanthine derivatives (also to increase glucose metabolism) appear promising as do the antithrombocyte aggregation action of acetylsalicylic acid. Low molecular dextran solutions (plasma expanders) have also been used with success although these also demand a general stabilization of the circulation.