Die akuten myeloischen Leukämien (AML) stellen eine heterogene Krankheitsgruppe dar. Ihre Diagnose beruht auf dem Nachweis unreifer myeloischer Zellen in panoptisch gefärbten Blut- und Knochenmarkausstrichen. Die derzeit gebräuchliche Einteilung der AML geht auf die Vorschläge der French-American-British Cooperative Group zurück, die nach Differenzierung und Reifegrad der Blasten sechs Subtypen unterschied (FAB-Klassifikation). In den letzten Jahren sind zahlreiche neue Methoden entwickelt worden, mit denen eine wesentlich verfeinerte Analyse der Tumorzellen möglich ist. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist es, die heutigen diagnostischen Möglichkeiten bei der AML darzustellen.

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