Background: Myeloproliferative diseases – in particular essential thrombocythaemia (ET) – may be associated with increases in platelet count which put patients at risk of life-threatening complications such as thromboses and severe bleedings. Patients and Methods: This multicentre post-marketing observational survey was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of anagrelide under daily practice conditions in at-risk patients with ET who received anagrelide for the first time. Results: 198 patients (median age of 64 years, range 19–88 years) were included, 61.1% of the patients were women. The mean observation time was 6.2 ± 1.7 months. Treatment with anagrelide lowered the platelet counts by a median of 316 × 109/l from a median of 797 × 109/l at the beginning of the observation to 470 × 109/l at the last observation (log rank test, p < 0.001). Disease-related complications were reduced during treatment compared to 6 months prior to treatment (transient ischaemic attacks from 1.5 to 0.5%; thromboses from 7.6 to 0%). The number of bleedings remained the same at 1.5%. Adverse events were documented in 46 patients (23.2%). All observed adverse events were similar to those previously reported in clinical studies. Conclusion: Anagrelide was effective in lowering the platelet count and was also well tolerated when used in daily clinical practice.

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