Possible Value of Positive PSA Levels in Malignant and Nonmalignant Breast Diseases Measurement of serum levels of PSA is widely used as a screening tool for prostate cancer. PSA has been shown to be associated with malignancies of many other organs than prostate, including the female breast. Therefore, PSA is not prostate-specific. PSA serum levels in femalesincrease with excess of androgens. Variable PSA expression was observed in membranes of adipocytes of fat tissue and in the endothelium of small vessels in female and male breast. There is increasing evidence that androgens play a significant role in the development and progression of breast cancer. 5α-reductase is an enzyme that is expressed in androgen-dependent tissues, including the female breast, catalyzing the reduction of testosterone to its more bioactive form, dihydrotestosterone, which then transactivates a number of genes. One of these genes encodes for PSA, a favorable prognostic factor in breast cancer. Interactions of PSA and sex hormones in physiological processes and in prostatic and mammary cancer have been reported. The possible influence of PSA on breast cancer growth and progression and even its physiological functions are still under controversial debate. There are some findings which might indicate similarities in the influence of steroid hormones on the development of prostate and breast malignancies, perhaps a unique hormone-dependent molecular pathway for both types of cancer.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.